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Author

Laura J. Muir

Other affiliations: Robert Gordon University
Bio: Laura J. Muir is an academic researcher from Edinburgh Napier University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Video tracking & Video quality. The author has an hindex of 7, co-authored 15 publications receiving 271 citations. Previous affiliations of Laura J. Muir include Robert Gordon University.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Eye-movement tracking experiments were conducted with profoundly deaf volunteers while watching sign language video clips, finding that deaf people are found to fixate mostly on the facial region of the signer to pick up small detailed movements associated with facial expression and mouth shapes.
Abstract: Video communication systems for deaf people are limited in terms of quality and performance. Analysis of visual attention mechanisms for sign language may enable optimization of video coding systems for deaf users. Eye-movement tracking experiments were conducted with profoundly deaf volunteers while watching sign language video clips. Deaf people are found to fixate mostly on the facial region of the signer to pick up small detailed movements associated with facial expression and mouth shapes. Lower resolution, peripheral vision is used to process information from larger, rapid movements of the signer in the video clips. A coding scheme that gives priority to the face of the signer may be applied to improve perception of video quality for sign language communication.

119 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate how scholars use and learn from e-books and the limitations of academic e-Books and present a typology of e-book interactions relevant to the design of ebooks (content and features) and to library/academic instruction in the effective use of eBooks (e-book literacy).

59 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: Semistructured qualitative interviews with search staff from the defense, pharmaceutical, and aerospace sectors indicates the potential transferability of the finding that organizations may not know their search expertise levels.
Abstract: No prior research has been identified that investigates the causal factors for workplace exploratory search task performance. The impact of user, task, and environmental factors on user satisfaction and task performance was investigated through a mixed methods study with 26 experienced information professionals using enterprise search in an oil and gas enterprise. Some participants found 75% of high-value items, others found none, with an average of 27%. No association was found between self-reported search expertise and task performance, with a tendency for many participants to overestimate their search expertise. Successful searchers may have more accurate mental models of both search systems and the information space. Organizations may not have effective exploratory search task performance feedback loops, a lack of learning. This may be caused by management bias towards technology, not capability, a lack of systems thinking. Furthermore, organizations may not "know" they "don't know" their true level of search expertise, a lack of knowing. A metamodel is presented identifying the causal factors for workplace exploratory search task performance. Semistructured qualitative interviews with search staff from the defense, pharmaceutical, and aerospace sectors indicates the potential transferability of the finding that organizations may not know their search expertise levels.

26 citations

31 Dec 2003
TL;DR: Eye movements of deaf users are tracked whilst watching a sign language video sequence and the results indicate that the gaze tends to concentrate on the face region with occasional excursions (saccades).
Abstract: Sign language communication via videotelephone has demanding visual quality requirements. In order to optimise video coding for sign language it is necessary to quantify the importance of areas of the video scene. Eye movements of deaf users are tracked whilst watching a sign language video sequence. The results indicate that the gaze tends to concentrate on the face region with occasional excursions (saccades). The implications of these results for prioritised coding of sign language video sequences are discussed.

23 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2002
TL;DR: Research and development that aims to optimise video compression systems for a specific application - personal communication at a distance for deaf people and proposals for image content prioritisation based on results are presented.
Abstract: The multimedia capability of video telephony and video conferencing systems has many applications and benefits. This paper describes research and development that aims to optimise video compression systems for a specific application - personal communication at a distance for deaf people. Results of eye movement tracking experiments and proposals for image content prioritisation based on these results are presented. The requirement for an appropriate quality assessment methodology is also addressed.

15 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Research Services has amended this section of the application requirement, so that each biographical sketch may not be longer than five (5) pages.

222 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The book points the way to the future indicating what work has to be done to answer the important questions and without doubt is essential reading for those working on these animals.

142 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Language is adapted to allow us to share episodic structures, whether past, planned, or fictional, and so increase survival fitness.
Abstract: Language, whether spoken or signed, can be viewed as a gestural system, evolving from the so-called mirror system in the primate brain. In nonhuman primates the gestural system is well developed for the productions and perception of manual action, especially transitive acts involving the grasping of objects. The emergence of bipedalism in the hominins freed the hands for the adaptation of the mirror system for intransitive acts for communication, initially through the miming of events. With the emergence of the genus Homo from some 2 million years ago, pressures for more complex communication and increased vocabulary size led to the conventionalization of gestures, the loss of iconic representation, and a gradual shift to vocal gestures replacing manual ones-although signed languages are still composed of manual and facial gestures. In parallel with the conventionalization of symbols, languages gained grammatical complexity, perhaps driven by the evolution of episodic memory and mental time travel, which involve combinations of familiar elements--Who did what to whom, when, where, and why? Language is thus adapted to allow us to share episodic structures, whether past, planned, or fictional, and so increase survival fitness.

132 citations