Bio: Laura Vilardo is an academic researcher from National Research Council. The author has contributed to research in topics: Stem cell & Cancer stem cell. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 9 publications receiving 196 citations.
TL;DR: As Syndecan-1 modulates the cancer stem cell phenotype via regulation of the Wnt and IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathways, it emerges as a promising novel target for therapeutic approaches.
Abstract: Syndecan-1 (CD138), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, acts as a coreceptor for growth factors and chemokines and is a molecular marker associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition during development and carcinogenesis Resistance of Syndecan-1-deficient mice to experimentally-induced tumorigenesis has been linked to altered Wnt-responsive precursor cell pools, suggesting a potential role of Syndecan-1 in breast cancer cell stem function However, the precise molecular mechanism is still elusive Here, we decipher the functional impact of Syndecan-1 knockdown using RNA interference on the breast cancer stem cell phenotype of human triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and hormone receptor-positive MCF-7 cells in vitro employing an analytical flow cytometric approach Successful Syndecan-1 siRNA knockdown was confirmed by flow cytometry Side population measurement by Hoechst dye exclusion and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity revealed that Syndecan-1 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells significantly reduced putative cancer stem cell pools by 60% and 27%, respectively, compared to controls In MCF-7 cells, Syndecan-1 depletion reduced the side population by 40% and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 by 50%, repectively In MDA-MB-231 cells, the CD44(+)CD24(-/low) phenotype decreased significantly by 6% upon siRNA-mediated Syndecan-1 depletion Intriguingly, IL-6, its receptor sIL-6R, and the chemokine CCL20, implicated in regulating stemness-associated pathways, were downregulated by >40% in Syndecan-1-silenced MDA-MB-231 cells, which showed a dysregulated response to IL-6-induced shifts in E-cadherin and vimentin expression Furthermore, activation of STAT-3 and NFkB transcription factors and expression of a coreceptor for Wnt signaling, LRP-6, were reduced by >45% in Syndecan-1-depleted cells compared to controls At the functional level, Syndecan-1 siRNA reduced the formation of spheres and cysts in MCF-7 cells grown in suspension culture Our study demonstrates the viability of flow cytometric approaches in analyzing cancer stem cell function As Syndecan-1 modulates the cancer stem cell phenotype via regulation of the Wnt and IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathways, it emerges as a promising novel target for therapeutic approaches
TL;DR: A canine model system to isolate and characterize normal and CSCs from dog mammary gland is generated and it is shown that cells obtained from spheres that display self-renewing properties, have multi-lineage differentiation potential, could generate complex branched tubular structures in vitro and form tumours in NOD/SCID mice.
Abstract: Recent data suggest that mammary carcinogenesis may be driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs) derived from mutated adult stem cells, which have acquired aberrant cell self-renewal or by progenitor cells that have acquired the capacity for cell self-renewal. Spontaneous mammary cancers in cats and dogs are important models for the understanding of human breast cancer and may represent alternative species model systems that can significantly contribute to the study of human oncogenesis. With the goal of identifying markers for isolating human breast CSCs, we have generated a canine model system to isolate and characterize normal and CSCs from dog mammary gland. Insight into the hierarchical organization of canine tumours may contribute to the development of universal concepts in oncogenesis by CSCs. Cells with stem cell properties were isolated from normal and tumoural canine breast tissue and propagated as mammospheres and tumourspheres in long-term non-adherent culture conditions. We showed that cells obtained from spheres that display self-renewing properties, have multi-lineage differentiation potential, could generate complex branched tubular structures in vitro and form tumours in NOD/SCID mice. We analysed these cells for the expression of human stem and CSC markers and are currently investigating the tumour-initiating properties of these cells and the hierarchical organization of normal and neoplastic canine mammary tissue.
TL;DR: A computational and unbiased miRNA-based screening of target genes not necessarily associated to MS was performed to provide an extensive view of the genetic mechanisms underlying the disease and supports the need of multidisciplinary strategies for shedding light into the pathogenesis of MS.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in complex multifactorial diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). Starting from the miRNomic profile previously associated with a cohort of pediatric MS (PedMS) patients, we applied a combined molecular and computational approach in order to verify published data in patients with adult-onset MS (AOMS). Six out of the 13 selected miRNAs (miR-320a, miR-125a-5p, miR-652-3p, miR-185-5p, miR-942-5p, miR-25-3p) were significantly upregulated in PedMS and AOMS patients, suggesting that they may be considered circulating biomarkers distinctive of the disease independently from age. A computational and unbiased miRNA-based screening of target genes not necessarily associated to MS was then performed in order to provide an extensive view of the genetic mechanisms underlying the disease. A comprehensive MS-specific miRNA-TF co-regulatory network was hypothesized; among others, SP1, RELA, NF-κB, TP53, AR, MYC, HDAC1, and STAT3 regulated the transcription of 61 targets. Interestingly, NF-κB and STAT3 cooperatively regulate the expression of immune response genes and control the cross-talk between inflammatory and immune cells. Further functional analysis will be performed on the identified critical hubs. Above all, in our view, this approach supports the need of multidisciplinary strategies for shedding light into the pathogenesis of MS.
TL;DR: The methodology identifies and characterises genes with a similar expression profile, through data mining and integrating data from publicly available resources, to contribute to a better understanding of gene regulation and cell function.
Abstract: Background The identification of the organisation and dynamics of molecular pathways is crucial for the understanding of cell function. In order to reconstruct the molecular pathways in which a gene of interest is involved in regulating a cell, it is important to identify the set of genes to which it interacts with to determine cell function. In this context, the mining and the integration of a large amount of publicly available data, regarding the transcriptome and the proteome states of a cell, are a useful resource to complement biological research.
TL;DR: It is shown that a single LA7 cell, derived from rat mammary adenocarcinoma has the ability to serially re-generate mammospheres in long-term non-adherent cultures, the differentiation potential to generate all the cell lineages of the mammary gland and branched duct-like structures that recapitulate morphologically and functionally the ductal–alveolar-like architecture of the Mammary tree.
Abstract: The cancer stem cell hypothesis posits that tumors are derived from a single cancer-initiating cell with stem cell properties. The task of identifying and characterizing cancer-initiating cells with stem cell properties at the single cell level has proven technically difficult because of the scarcity of the cancer stem cells in the tissue of origin and the lack of specific markers for cancer stem cells. Here we show that a single LA7 cell, derived from rat mammary adenocarcinoma has: the ability to serially re-generate mammospheres in long-term non-adherent cultures, the differentiation potential to generate all the cell lineages of the mammary gland and branched duct-like structures that recapitulate morphologically and functionally the ductal–alveolar-like architecture of the mammary tree. The properties of self-renewal, extensive capacity for proliferation, multi-lineage differentiation and the tubular-like structure formation potential suggest that LA7 cells is a cancer stem model system to study the dynamics of tumor formation at the single cell level.
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: Research data show that more resistant stem cells than common cancer cells exist in cancer patients, and to identify unrecognized differences between cancer stem cells and cancer cells might be able to develop effective classification, diagnose and treat for cancer.
Abstract: Stem cells are defined as cells able to both extensively self-renew and differentiate into progenitors. Research data show that more resistant stem cells than common cancer cells exist in cancer patients.To identify unrecognized differences between cancer stem cells and cancer cells might be able to develope effective classification,diagnose and treat ment for cancer.
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: In this article, a review outlines the current understanding of miRNA target recognition in animals and discusses the widespread impact of miRNAs on both the expression and evolution of protein-coding genes.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous ∼23 nt RNAs that play important gene-regulatory roles in animals and plants by pairing to the mRNAs of protein-coding genes to direct their posttranscriptional repression. This review outlines the current understanding of miRNA target recognition in animals and discusses the widespread impact of miRNAs on both the expression and evolution of protein-coding genes.
TL;DR: The miRNet 2.0 as mentioned in this paper is an easy-to-use web-based platform designed to help elucidate microRNA functions by integrating users' data with existing knowledge via network-based visual analytics.
Abstract: miRNet is an easy-to-use, web-based platform designed to help elucidate microRNA (miRNA) functions by integrating users' data with existing knowledge via network-based visual analytics. Since its first release in 2016, miRNet has been accessed by >20 000 researchers worldwide, with ∼100 users on a daily basis. While version 1.0 was focused primarily on miRNA-target gene interactions, it has become clear that in order to obtain a global view of miRNA functions, it is necessary to bring other important players into the context during analysis. Driven by this concept, in miRNet version 2.0, we have (i) added support for transcription factors (TFs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect miRNAs, miRNA-binding sites or target genes, whilst also greatly increased (>5-fold) the underlying knowledgebases of miRNAs, ncRNAs and disease associations; (ii) implemented new functions to allow creation and visual exploration of multipartite networks, with enhanced support for in situ functional analysis and (iii) revamped the web interface, optimized the workflow, and introduced microservices and web application programming interface (API) to sustain high-performance, real-time data analysis. The underlying R package is also released in tandem with version 2.0 to allow more flexible data analysis for R programmers. The miRNet 2.0 website is freely available at https://www.mirnet.ca.
TL;DR: Several ECM components andECM remodeling enzymes are specifically induced in breast cancer or during tissue regeneration while healthy tissues under homeostasis express exceedingly low levels, which may indicate that ECM and ECM-associated functions may represent promising drug targets against breast cancer, providing important specificity that could be utilized when developing therapies.
Abstract: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is increasingly recognized as an important regulator in breast cancer. ECM in breast cancer development features numerous changes in composition and organization when compared to the mammary gland under homeostasis. Matrix proteins that are induced in breast cancer include fibrillar collagens, fibronectin, specific laminins and proteoglycans as well as matricellular proteins. Growing evidence suggests that many of these induced ECM proteins play a major functional role in breast cancer progression and metastasis. A number of the induced ECM proteins have moreover been shown to be essential components of metastatic niches, promoting stem/progenitor signaling pathways and metastatic growth. ECM remodeling enzymes are also markedly increased, leading to major changes in the matrix structure and biomechanical properties. Importantly, several ECM components and ECM remodeling enzymes are specifically induced in breast cancer or during tissue regeneration while healthy tissues under homeostasis express exceedingly low levels. This may indicate that ECM and ECM-associated functions may represent promising drug targets against breast cancer, providing important specificity that could be utilized when developing therapies.