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Author

Lawrence F. Travis

Other affiliations: University at Albany, SUNY
Bio: Lawrence F. Travis is an academic researcher from University of Cincinnati. The author has contributed to research in topics: Criminal justice & Law enforcement. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 69 publications receiving 1428 citations. Previous affiliations of Lawrence F. Travis include University at Albany, SUNY.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings provide support for Petersilia’s suggestions and indicate that employment, housing, and the completion of some forms of treatment are negatively associated with multiple measures of recidivism.
Abstract: Deficits in education, employment, and housing as well as the lack of treatment programs pose significant barriers to the successful reentry of inmates released from prison. This research uses a representative sample of inmates released from Ohio prisons to examine the extent to which these factors are associated with recidivism. Furthermore, building on prior research, it examines potential differences in these predictors by gender. The findings provide support for Petersilia’s suggestions and indicate that employment, housing, and the completion of some forms of treatment are negatively associated with multiple measures of recidivism. Also, no gender differences in the predictors examined here are detected, suggesting that the factors likely behave in a gender-neutral manner.

135 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examined race-group differences in the effects of how felony defendants are treated at earlier decision points in case processing on case outcomes and found evidence of greater "cumulative disadvantages" for Black defendants in general and young Black men in particular.
Abstract: Research Summary We examined race-group differences in the effects of how felony defendants are treated at earlier decision points in case processing on case outcomes. Multilevel analyses of 3,459 defendants nested within 123 prosecutors and 34 judges in a large, northern U.S. jurisdiction revealed significant main and interaction effects of a defendant's race on bond amounts, pretrial detention, and nonsuspended prison sentences, but no significant effects on charge reductions and prison sentence length. Evidence of greater "cumulative disadvantages" for Black defendants in general and young Black men in particular was revealed by significant indirect race effects on the odds of pretrial detention via type of attorney, prior imprisonment, and bond amounts, as well as by indirect race effects on prison sentences via pretrial detention and prior imprisonment. Policy Implications The consideration of cumulative disadvantage is important for a more complete understanding of the overincarceration of Blacks in the United States. Toward the end of reducing racial disparities in the distribution of prison sentences, courts might (a) reduce reliance on money bail, (b) consider bail amounts for indigent defendants more carefully, and (c) increase the structure of pretrial decision making to reduce the stronger effects of imprisonment history and type of attorney on the odds of pretrial detention for Black suspects. Language: en

111 citations

Book
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: The early history of policing in America can be found in this article, where the English Roots of American Policing are discussed and an overview of current trends and future issues in policing are discussed.
Abstract: I. DEVELOPING A PERSPECTIVE. 1. Understanding the Police. 2. The Early History of Policing. 3. The English Roots of American Policing. 4. The Evolution of Policing in America. II. THE LAW ENFORCEMENT INDUSTRY IN AMERICA. 5. Federal and State Police. 6. Private and Social-Purpose Police. 7. Municipal and Local Police. III. CORRELATES OF POLICING: ORGANIZATIONS, OFFICERS, AND COMMUNITIES. 8. Police Organizations. 9. Individuals in Policing: Officers and Supervisors. 10. Police Officers. 11. Police and Community. IV. THE FUNCTIONS OF POLICING IN AMERICA. 12. Law Enforcement and the Police. 13. Service and the Police. 14. Order and the Police. V. DILEMMAS IN POLICING. 15. Community Policing: Tying it all Together. 16. Controlling the Police. 17. Current Trends and Future Issues in Policing.

103 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that a comprehensive approach to training and development can effectively instill in officers the supervision attitudes that are most conducive to promoting offender change.
Abstract: Much has been written about officer role orientations in probation and parole and about principles of effective correctional intervention, but little research adequately reflects the importance of linking these two discussions. The present study on officer attitudes provides a first step toward making this link. An officer attitude survey was conducted with both regular and intensive supervision officers at two different program sites. Each site recently implemented a prototypical model of intensive supervision that encourages a balanced approach to supervision and is based on principles of effective correctional intervention. Prior to implementation, the intensive supervision officers at each site participated in comprehensive training and development activities. The primary purpose of this research was to learn the extent to which attitudes of the intensive supervision officers differ from those of regular supervision officers—who did not participate in the training and development activities—in terms o...

74 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors conducted a survey of principals and law enforcement administrators to compare reports of the types of activities in which police are involved and found agreement that law-enforcement related activities were the most common type of police involvement in schools, but police also report higher levels of overall participation in schools.
Abstract: This paper describes results from a recent study about the role of law enforcement in schools. Using data from a national mail survey of principals and law enforcement administrators, we compare reports of the types of activities in which police are involved. We found agreement that law-enforcement related activities were the most common type of police involvement in schools, but police also report higher levels of overall participation in schools. We conclude with a discussion of possible explanations for these different perceptions and suggestions for future research to better understand the role of law enforcement in school safety.

68 citations


Cited by
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: The four Visegrad states (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary) form a compact area between Germany and Austria in the west and the states of the former USSR in the east as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The four Visegrad states — Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia (until 1993 Czechoslovakia) and Hungary — form a compact area between Germany and Austria in the west and the states of the former USSR in the east. They are bounded by the Baltic in the north and the Danube river in the south. They are cut by the Sudeten and Carpathian mountain ranges, which divide Poland off from the other states. Poland is an extension of the North European plain and like the latter is drained by rivers that flow from south to north west — the Oder, the Vlatava and the Elbe, the Vistula and the Bug. The Danube is the great exception, flowing from its source eastward, turning through two 90-degree turns to end up in the Black Sea, forming the barrier and often the political frontier between central Europe and the Balkans. Hungary to the east of the Danube is also an open plain. The region is historically and culturally part of western Europe, but its eastern Marches now represents a vital strategic zone between Germany and the core of the European Union to the west and the Russian zone to the east.

3,056 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the 1966 paperback edition of a publication which first appeared in 1963 has by now been widely reviewed as a worthy contribution to the sociological study of deviant behavior as discussed by the authors, and the authors developed a sequential model of deviance relying on the concept of career, a concept originally developed in studies of occupations.
Abstract: This 1966 paperback edition of a publication which first appeared in 1963 has by now been widely reviewed as a worthy contribution to the sociological study of deviant behavior. Its current appearance as a paperback is a testimonial both to the quality of the work and to the prominence of deviant behavior in this generation. In general the author places deviance in perspective, identifies types of deviant behavior, considers the role of rule makers and enforcers, and some of the problems in studying deviance. In addition, he develops a sequential model of deviance relying on the concept of career, a concept originally developed in studies of occupations. In his study of a particular kind of deviance, the use of marihuana, the author posits and tests systematically an hypothesis about the genesis of marihuana use for pleasure. The hypothesis traces the sequence of changes in individual attitude

2,650 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: This application applied longitudinal data analysis modeling change and event occurrence will help people to enjoy a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon instead of facing with some infectious virus inside their computer.
Abstract: Thank you very much for downloading applied longitudinal data analysis modeling change and event occurrence. As you may know, people have look hundreds times for their favorite novels like this applied longitudinal data analysis modeling change and event occurrence, but end up in malicious downloads. Rather than enjoying a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they are facing with some infectious virus inside their computer.

2,102 citations

Book
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: The fear of crime interpreting victimization risk is universally compatible later any devices to read, allowing the most less latency epoch to download any of the authors' books subsequent to this one.
Abstract: Rather than enjoying a good PDF next a cup of coffee in the afternoon, otherwise they juggled past some harmful virus inside their computer. fear of crime interpreting victimization risk is comprehensible in our digital library an online right of entry to it is set as public appropriately you can download it instantly. Our digital library saves in multipart countries, allowing you to acquire the most less latency epoch to download any of our books subsequent to this one. Merely said, the fear of crime interpreting victimization risk is universally compatible later any devices to read.

776 citations