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Lawrence O. Hall

Bio: Lawrence O. Hall is an academic researcher from University of South Florida. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cluster analysis & Fuzzy clustering. The author has an hindex of 54, co-authored 323 publications receiving 37867 citations. Previous affiliations of Lawrence O. Hall include University of Florida & Florida State University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples, which is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.
Abstract: An approach to the construction of classifiers from imbalanced datasets is described. A dataset is imbalanced if the classification categories are not approximately equally represented. Often real-world data sets are predominately composed of "normal" examples with only a small percentage of "abnormal" or "interesting" examples. It is also the case that the cost of misclassifying an abnormal (interesting) example as a normal example is often much higher than the cost of the reverse error. Under-sampling of the majority (normal) class has been proposed as a good means of increasing the sensitivity of a classifier to the minority class. This paper shows that a combination of our method of oversampling the minority (abnormal)cla ss and under-sampling the majority (normal) class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space)tha n only under-sampling the majority class. This paper also shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority class and under-sampling the majority class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space)t han varying the loss ratios in Ripper or class priors in Naive Bayes. Our method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples. Experiments are performed using C4.5, Ripper and a Naive Bayes classifier. The method is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC)and the ROC convex hull strategy.

17,313 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples, which is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.
Abstract: An approach to the construction of classifiers from imbalanced datasets is described. A dataset is imbalanced if the classification categories are not approximately equally represented. Often real-world data sets are predominately composed of "normal" examples with only a small percentage of "abnormal" or "interesting" examples. It is also the case that the cost of misclassifying an abnormal (interesting) example as a normal example is often much higher than the cost of the reverse error. Under-sampling of the majority (normal) class has been proposed as a good means of increasing the sensitivity of a classifier to the minority class. This paper shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority (abnormal) class and under-sampling the majority (normal) class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space) than only under-sampling the majority class. This paper also shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority class and under-sampling the majority class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space) than varying the loss ratios in Ripper or class priors in Naive Bayes. Our method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples. Experiments are performed using C4.5, Ripper and a Naive Bayes classifier. The method is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.

11,512 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: "Radiomics" refers to the extraction and analysis of large amounts of advanced quantitative imaging features with high throughput from medical images obtained with computed tomography, positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, leading to a very large potential subject pool.

1,608 citations

Book ChapterDOI
22 Sep 2003
TL;DR: This paper presents a novel approach for learning from imbalanced data sets, based on a combination of the SMOTE algorithm and the boosting procedure, which shows improvement in prediction performance on the minority class and overall improved F-values.
Abstract: Many real world data mining applications involve learning from imbalanced data sets. Learning from data sets that contain very few instances of the minority (or interesting) class usually produces biased classifiers that have a higher predictive accuracy over the majority class(es), but poorer predictive accuracy over the minority class. SMOTE (Synthetic Minority Over-sampling TEchnique) is specifically designed for learning from imbalanced data sets. This paper presents a novel approach for learning from imbalanced data sets, based on a combination of the SMOTE algorithm and the boosting procedure. Unlike standard boosting where all misclassified examples are given equal weights, SMOTEBoost creates synthetic examples from the rare or minority class, thus indirectly changing the updating weights and compensating for skewed distributions. SMOTEBoost applied to several highly and moderately imbalanced data sets shows improvement in prediction performance on the minority class and overall improved F-values.

1,502 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper has reviewed, with somewhat variable coverage, the nine MR image segmentation techniques itemized in Table II; each has its merits and drawbacks.
Abstract: This paper has reviewed, with somewhat variable coverage, the nine MR image segmentation techniques itemized in Table II. A wide array of approaches have been discussed; each has its merits and drawbacks. We have also given pointers to other approaches not discussed in depth in this review. The methods reviewed fall roughly into four model groups: c-means, maximum likelihood, neural networks, and k-nearest neighbor rules. Both supervised and unsupervised schemes require human intervention to obtain clinically useful results in MR segmentation. Unsupervised techniques require somewhat less interaction on a per patient/image basis. Maximum likelihood techniques have had some success, but are very susceptible to the choice of training region, which may need to be chosen slice by slice for even one patient. Generally, techniques that must assume an underlying statistical distribution of the data (such as LML and UML) do not appear promising, since tissue regions of interest do not usually obey the distributional tendencies of probability density functions. The most promising supervised techniques reviewed seem to be FF/NN methods that allow hidden layers to be configured as examples are presented to the system. An example of a self-configuring network, FF/CC, was also discussed. The relatively simple k-nearest neighbor rule algorithms (hard and fuzzy) have also shown promise in the supervised category. Unsupervised techniques based upon fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms have also shown great promise in MR image segmentation. Several unsupervised connectionist techniques have recently been experimented with on MR images of the brain and have provided promising initial results. A pixel-intensity-based edge detection algorithm has recently been used to provide promising segmentations of the brain. This is also an unsupervised technique, older versions of which have been susceptible to oversegmenting the image because of the lack of clear boundaries between tissue types or finding uninteresting boundaries between slightly different types of the same tissue. To conclude, we offer some remarks about improving MR segmentation techniques. The better unsupervised techniques are too slow. Improving speed via parallelization and optimization will improve their competitiveness with, e.g., the k-nn rule, which is the fastest technique covered in this review. Another area for development is dynamic cluster validity. Unsupervised methods need better ways to specify and adjust c, the number of tissue classes found by the algorithm. Initialization is a third important area of research. Many of the schemes listed in Table II are sensitive to good initialization, both in terms of the parameters of the design, as well as operator selection of training data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

1,036 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples, which is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.
Abstract: An approach to the construction of classifiers from imbalanced datasets is described. A dataset is imbalanced if the classification categories are not approximately equally represented. Often real-world data sets are predominately composed of "normal" examples with only a small percentage of "abnormal" or "interesting" examples. It is also the case that the cost of misclassifying an abnormal (interesting) example as a normal example is often much higher than the cost of the reverse error. Under-sampling of the majority (normal) class has been proposed as a good means of increasing the sensitivity of a classifier to the minority class. This paper shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority (abnormal) class and under-sampling the majority (normal) class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space) than only under-sampling the majority class. This paper also shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority class and under-sampling the majority class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space) than varying the loss ratios in Ripper or class priors in Naive Bayes. Our method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples. Experiments are performed using C4.5, Ripper and a Naive Bayes classifier. The method is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.

11,512 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2010
TL;DR: A brief overview of clustering is provided, well known clustering methods are summarized, the major challenges and key issues in designing clustering algorithms are discussed, and some of the emerging and useful research directions are pointed out.
Abstract: Organizing data into sensible groupings is one of the most fundamental modes of understanding and learning. As an example, a common scheme of scientific classification puts organisms into a system of ranked taxa: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, etc. Cluster analysis is the formal study of methods and algorithms for grouping, or clustering, objects according to measured or perceived intrinsic characteristics or similarity. Cluster analysis does not use category labels that tag objects with prior identifiers, i.e., class labels. The absence of category information distinguishes data clustering (unsupervised learning) from classification or discriminant analysis (supervised learning). The aim of clustering is to find structure in data and is therefore exploratory in nature. Clustering has a long and rich history in a variety of scientific fields. One of the most popular and simple clustering algorithms, K-means, was first published in 1955. In spite of the fact that K-means was proposed over 50 years ago and thousands of clustering algorithms have been published since then, K-means is still widely used. This speaks to the difficulty in designing a general purpose clustering algorithm and the ill-posed problem of clustering. We provide a brief overview of clustering, summarize well known clustering methods, discuss the major challenges and key issues in designing clustering algorithms, and point out some of the emerging and useful research directions, including semi-supervised clustering, ensemble clustering, simultaneous feature selection during data clustering, and large scale data clustering.

6,601 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical review of the nature of the problem, the state-of-the-art technologies, and the current assessment metrics used to evaluate learning performance under the imbalanced learning scenario is provided.
Abstract: With the continuous expansion of data availability in many large-scale, complex, and networked systems, such as surveillance, security, Internet, and finance, it becomes critical to advance the fundamental understanding of knowledge discovery and analysis from raw data to support decision-making processes. Although existing knowledge discovery and data engineering techniques have shown great success in many real-world applications, the problem of learning from imbalanced data (the imbalanced learning problem) is a relatively new challenge that has attracted growing attention from both academia and industry. The imbalanced learning problem is concerned with the performance of learning algorithms in the presence of underrepresented data and severe class distribution skews. Due to the inherent complex characteristics of imbalanced data sets, learning from such data requires new understandings, principles, algorithms, and tools to transform vast amounts of raw data efficiently into information and knowledge representation. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the development of research in learning from imbalanced data. Our focus is to provide a critical review of the nature of the problem, the state-of-the-art technologies, and the current assessment metrics used to evaluate learning performance under the imbalanced learning scenario. Furthermore, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potential important research directions for learning from imbalanced data.

6,320 citations