Other affiliations: University of South China, University of Texas at Austin, National Institute of Standards and Technology ...read more
Bio: Lei Cao is an academic researcher from Ohio State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Materials science. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 104 publications receiving 5963 citations. Previous affiliations of Lei Cao include University of South China & University of Texas at Austin.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm−2) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes.
Abstract: Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH3NH3PbI3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm(-2)) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smaller trap densities in the single crystals than in polycrystalline thin films. The long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH3NH3PbI3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source.
TL;DR: In this paper, single-crystal perovskite devices 2-3 mm thick exhibit 16.4% X-ray detection efficiency with sensitivity four times higher than α-Se detectors.
Abstract: Single-crystal perovskite devices 2–3 mm thick exhibit 16.4% X-ray detection efficiency with sensitivity four times higher than α-Se X-ray detectors.
TL;DR: In this paper, hybrid perovskite crystals are integrated onto silicon wafers enabling fabrication of an X-ray linear detector array, which may reduce patient dose in medical imaging applications.
Abstract: Hybrid perovskite crystals are integrated onto silicon wafers enabling fabrication of an X-ray linear detector array. High sensitivity may reduce patient dose in medical imaging applications.
TL;DR: A dopant compensation in alloyed OIHP single crystals is reported to overcome limitations of device noise and charge collection, enabling γ-ray spectrum collection at room temperature.
Abstract: Organic–inorganic halide perovskites (OIHPs) bring an unprecedented opportunity for radiation detection with their defect-tolerance nature, large mobility–lifetime product, and simple crystal growth from solution. Here we report a dopant compensation in alloyed OIHP single crystals to overcome limitations of device noise and charge collection, enabling γ-ray spectrum collection at room temperature. CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbCl3 are found to be p-type and n-type doped, respectively, whereas dopant-compensated CH3NH3PbBr2.94Cl0.06 alloy has over tenfold improved bulk resistivity of 3.6 × 109 Ω cm. Alloying also increases the hole mobility to 560 cm2 V−1 s−1, yielding a high mobility–lifetime product of 1.8 × 10−2 cm2 V−1. The use of a guard ring electrode in the detector reduces the crystal surface leakage current and device dark current. A distinguishable 137Cs energy spectrum with comparable or better resolution than standard scintillator detectors is collected under a small electric field of 1.8 V mm−1 at room temperature. Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite single crystals with optimized combination of Cl and Br ions are used to fabricate γ-ray detectors operating at room temperature and competing with the performance of sodium iodide scintillators.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and surface photovoltage spectrography to measure the effects of near-surface plasma processing and neutron irradiation on native point defects in β-Ga2O3.
Abstract: We used depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and surface photovoltage spectroscopy to measure the effects of near-surface plasma processing and neutron irradiation on native point defects in β-Ga2O3. The near-surface sensitivity and depth resolution of these optical techniques enabled us to identify spectral changes associated with removing or creating these defects, leading to identification of one oxygen vacancy-related and two gallium vacancy-related energy levels in the β-Ga2O3 bandgap. The combined near-surface detection and processing of Ga2O3 suggests an avenue for identifying the physical nature and reducing the density of native point defects in this and other semiconductors.
TL;DR: In this paper, the triple cation perovskite photovoltaics with inorganic cesium were shown to be thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions.
Abstract: Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. With the addition of inorganic cesium, the resulting triple cation perovskite compositions are thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions. This enables more reproducible device performances to reach a stabilized power output of 21.1% and ∼18% after 250 hours under operational conditions. These properties are key for the industrialization of perovskite photovoltaics.
TL;DR: In this paper, an organic halide salt phenethylammonium iodide (PEAI) was used on HC(NH2)2-CH3NH3 mixed perovskite films for surface defect passivation.
Abstract: In recent years, the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells has increased to reach over 20%. Finding an effective means of defect passivation is thought to be a promising route for bringing further increases in the power conversion efficiency and the open-circuit voltage (VOC) of perovskite solar cells. Here, we report the use of an organic halide salt phenethylammonium iodide (PEAI) on HC(NH2)2–CH3NH3 mixed perovskite films for surface defect passivation. We find that PEAI can form on the perovskite surface and results in higher-efficiency cells by reducing the defects and suppressing non-radiative recombination. As a result, planar perovskite solar cells with a certificated efficiency of 23.32% (quasi-steady state) are obtained. In addition, a VOC as high as 1.18 V is achieved at the absorption threshold of 1.53 eV, which is 94.4% of the Shockley–Queisser limit VOC (1.25 V). Planar perovskite solar cells that have been passivated using the organic halide salt phenethylammonium iodide are shown to have suppressed non-radiative recombination and operate with a certified power conversion efficiency of 23.3%.
TL;DR: The broad tunability and fabrication methods of these materials, the current understanding of the operation of state-of-the-art solar cells and the properties that have delivered light-emitting diodes and lasers are described.
Abstract: Metal-halide perovskites are crystalline materials originally developed out of scientific curiosity. Unexpectedly, solar cells incorporating these perovskites are rapidly emerging as serious contenders to rival the leading photovoltaic technologies. Power conversion efficiencies have jumped from 3% to over 20% in just four years of academic research. Here, we review the rapid progress in perovskite solar cells, as well as their promising use in light-emitting devices. In particular, we describe the broad tunability and fabrication methods of these materials, the current understanding of the operation of state-of-the-art solar cells and we highlight the properties that have delivered light-emitting diodes and lasers. We discuss key thermal and operational stability challenges facing perovskites, and give an outlook of future research avenues that might bring perovskite technology to commercialization.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identify the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.
Abstract: Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.
TL;DR: Heavy doped inorganic charge extraction layers in planar PSCs were used to achieve very rapid carrier extraction, even with 10- to 20-nanometer-thick layers, avoiding pinholes and eliminating local structural defects over large areas.
Abstract: The recent dramatic rise in power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has triggered intense research worldwide. However, high PCE values have often been reached with poor stability at an illuminated area of typically less than 0.1 square centimeter. We used heavily doped inorganic charge extraction layers in planar PSCs to achieve very rapid carrier extraction, even with 10- to 20-nanometer-thick layers, avoiding pinholes and eliminating local structural defects over large areas. The robust inorganic nature of the layers allowed for the fabrication of PSCs with an aperture area >1 square centimeter that have a PCE >15%, as certified by an accredited photovoltaic calibration laboratory. Hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics was eliminated; the PSCs were stable, with >90% of the initial PCE remaining after 1000 hours of light soaking.