Author

# Leon Peters

Bio: Leon Peters is an academic researcher from Ohio State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ground-penetrating radar & Plane wave. The author has an hindex of 19, co-authored 61 publications receiving 1442 citations.

Topics: Ground-penetrating radar, Plane wave, Radar, Scattering, Radar imaging

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the geometrical theory of diffraction to obtain the backscattered field for plane-wave incidence on a target with particular emphasis on those regions that are usually avoided, namely, the caustic region and its immediate vicinity.

Abstract: The fields diffracted by a body made up of finite axially symmetric cone frustums are obtained using the concepts of the geometrical theory of diffraction. The backscattered field for plane-wave incidence on such a target is obtained with particular emphasis on those regions that are usually avoided, namely, the caustic region and its immediate vicinity. The method makes use of equivalent electric and magnetic current sources which are incorporated in the geometrical theory of diffraction. This solution is such that it is readily incorporated in a general computer program, rather than requiring that a new program be written for each shape. Several results, such as the cone, the cylinder and the conically capped cylinder, are given. In addition, the method is readily applied to antenna problems. An example which is reported consists of the radiation by a stub over a circular ground plane. This present theory yields quite good agreement with experimental results reported by Lopez, whereas the original theory given by Lopez is in error by as much as 10 dB.

190 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a theoretical and experimental investigation of the scattering by a two-dimensional array of loaded dipoles is described, and the scattering through the resonance region shows that a unit reflection coefficient is achieved.

Abstract: Two-dimensional periodic arrays of dipoles or slots act as reflecting or transmitting surfaces, respectively, which have bandpass filter characteristics. The resonant frequency and the bandwidth may be controlled by varying the length, spacing, and load impedance of the dipoles (slots). A theoretical and experimental investigation of the scattering by a two-dimensional array of loaded dipoles is described. The scattering through the resonance region shows that a unit reflection coefficient is achieved. The effect of grating-lobe radiation is included. The scattering properties as a function of the angle of incidence are given for both loaded and unloaded dipoles. The loaded dipole array described in this paper produces a narrower bandwidth than the array of unloaded dipoles, and the resonant frequency is much less dependent on the angle of incidence. The resonant frequency of the array as well as the bandwidth depends strongly on the resonant frequency of the dipole element as would be expected; however, it is also substantially influenced by the interelement spacing and the angle of incidence.

129 citations

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TL;DR: A classification technique focused on the identification of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) using complex natural resonance (CNR) signature is considered and a practical UXO classification yields an estimate of the UXO length from its CNR information.

Abstract: A classification technique focused on the identification of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) using complex natural resonance (CNR) signature is considered. The total least square (TLS) Prony's (1795) method is used to extract CNRs from time-domain data, Full-scale UXO computational models and the body of revolution moment method (BORMM) code is used to obtain the backscattered fields, which are then used to give the theoretical free-space CNRs. Baum's (1993) transformation is used to relate a CNR in a lossy simple medium to the corresponding CNR in free space. A practical UXO classification yields an estimate of the UXO length from its CNR information. Successful UXO classification examples from actual measured data are presented.

117 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, only the components of the equivalent current perpendicular to the incidence plane are used to compute the scattering pattern of flat plate structures, and the same results can be obtained for plate structures made of straight edges by using a new corner diffraction analysis.

Abstract: The equivalent current concept is used to compute the scattering patterns of flat plate structures. It is also used to obtain the broadside scattering lobe for any incidence plane. The essential feature introduced in this paper is that only the components of the equivalent current perpendicular to the incidence plane are used. No special treatment of the singularity in the plane wave diffraction coefficient (which is the basis of the equivalent current concept) is required. Instead, this choice of equivalent current components is such that the singularity at one edge segment is canceled by the singularity at the opposite edge segment. For modern day computers there is sufficient accuracy that the main scattering lobe can be obtained in the limit as one approaches broadside. The same results can be obtained for plate structures made of straight edges by using a new corner diffraction analysis. For certain cases where the observation angle is sufficiently removed from normal incidence to an edge, the corner diffraction analysis appears to yield more accurate results.

107 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a model for the principal Eplane radiation of horn antennas was proposed and a complete pattern, including multiple interactions and images of induced line sources, was obtained in infinite series form.

Abstract: Edge diffraction theory is used in analyzing the radiation characteristics of typical horn antennas. The far-sidelobe and backlobe radiation has been solved without employing field equivalence principles which are impractical in the problem. A corner reflector with a magnetic line source located at the vertex is proposed as a model for the principal E -plane radiation of horn antennas. A complete pattern, including multiple interactions and images of induced line sources, is obtained in infinite series form. Diffraction mechanisms are used for appropriate approximations in the computations. The computed patterns are in excellent agreement with measured patterns of typical horn antennas. Radiation intensity of the backlobe relative to mainlobe intensity is obtained as a back-to-front ratio and plotted as a function of antenna dimensions.

71 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a compact dyadic diffraction coefficient for electromagnetic waves obliquely incident on a curved edse formed by perfectly conducting curved plane surfaces is obtained, which is based on Keller's method of the canonical problem, which in this case is the perfectly conducting wedge illuminated by cylindrical, conical, and spherical waves.

Abstract: A compact dyadic diffraction coefficient for electromagnetic waves obliquely incident on a curved edse formed by perfectly conducting curved ot plane surfaces is obtained. This diffraction coefficient remains valid in the transition regions adjacent to shadow and reflection boundaries, where the diffraction coefficients of Keller's original theory fail. Our method is based on Keller's method of the canonical problem, which in this case is the perfectly conducting wedge illuminated by plane, cylindrical, conical, and spherical waves. When the proper ray-fixed coordinate system is introduced, the dyadic diffraction coefficient for the wedge is found to be the sum of only two dyads, and it is shown that this is also true for the dyadic diffraction coefficients of higher order edges. One dyad contains the acoustic soft diffraction coefficient; the other dyad contains the acoustic hard diffraction coefficient. The expressions for the acoustic wedge diffraction coefficients contain Fresenel integrals, which ensure that the total field is continuous at shadow and reflection boundaries. The diffraction coefficients have the same form for the different types of edge illumination; only the arguments of the Fresnel integrals are different. Since diffraction is a local phenomenon, and locally the curved edge structure is wedge shaped, this result is readily extended to the curved wedge. It is interesting that even though the polarizations and the wavefront curvatures of the incident, reflected, and diffracted waves are markedly different, the total field calculated from this high-frequency solution for the curved wedge is continuous at shadow and reflection boundaries.

2,478 citations

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TL;DR: Plasmonic resonances in nanoantennas overcome constraints on the resolution to which an object can be imaged, as well as the size of the transverse cross section of efficient guiding structures to the wavelength dimension, allowing unprecedented control of light-matter interactions within subwavelength volumes.

Abstract: When light interacts with a metal nanoparticle (NP), its conduction electrons can be driven by the incident electric field in collective oscillations known as localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs). These give rise to a drastic alteration of the incident radiation pattern and to striking effects such as the subwavelength localization of electromagnetic (EM) energy, the formation of high intensity hot spots at the NP surface, or the directional scattering of light out of the structure. LSPRs can also couple to the EM fields emitted by molecules, atoms, or quantum dots placed in the vicinity of the NP, leading in turn to a strong modification of the radiative and nonradiative properties of the emitter. Since LSPRs enable an efficient transfer of EM energy from the near to the far-field of metal NPs and vice versa, we can consider plasmonic nanostructures as nanoantennas, because they operate in a similar way to radio antennas but at higher frequencies. Typically, plasmonic nanoantennas at optical frequencies are made of gold and silver due to their goodmetallic properties and low absorption. Controlling and guiding light has been one of science’s most influential achievements. It affects everyday life in many ways, such as the development of telescopes, microscopes, spectrometers, and optical fibers, to name but a few. These examples exploit the wave nature of light and are based on the reflection, refraction and diffraction of light by optical elements such as mirrors, lenses or gratings. However, the wave nature of light limits the resolution to which an object can be imaged, as well as the size of the transverse cross section of efficient guiding structures to the wavelength dimension. Plasmonic resonances in nanoantennas overcome these constraints, allowing unprecedented control of light-matter interactions within subwavelength volumes (i.e., within the nanoscale at optical frequencies). Such properties have attracted much interest lately, due to the implications they have both in fundamental research and in technological applications. Metal NPs have been used since antiquity. Due to their strong scattering properties in the visible range, they show attractive colors. One of their first applications, dating back to the Roman Empire more than 2000 years ago, was as a colorant for clothing. In art, they were used to stain window glass and ceramics. Obviously, it was not known then that the colorants being used contained metal NPs or that the spectacular colors were due to the excitation of LSPRs. The first reported intentional production of metal NPs dates from 1857, when Faraday synthesized gold colloids. However, at the time there was not much interest in understanding the physics behind the optical properties of colloids due to the impossibility of synthesizing NPs with well-controlled shapes and sizes, as well as the lack of accurate detection techniques. The first theoretical work on the scattering of light by particles smaller than the incident wavelength was carried out by Lord Rayleigh at the end of the 19th century. He analyzed the diffusion of light by diluted gases, and his theory explained physical phenomena such as the blueness of the sky, the redness of the sunset, or the yellow color of the sun. Mie took the next step forward by deriving an analytical solution to Maxwell’s equations to describe the interaction of light with spheres of arbitrary radius and composition. Subsequently, based on the results of Rayleigh and Mie, Gans considered elliptical geometries. He demonstrated that the optical response of metal NPs is

1,130 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a number of representative techniques for analyzing frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs), which comprise periodic arrays of patches or apertures in a conducting screen and find important applications as filters in microwaves and optics, are discussed.

Abstract: A number of representative techniques for analyzing frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs), which comprise periodic arrays of patches or apertures in a conducting screen and find important applications as filters in microwaves and optics, are discussed. The basic properties of the FSSs are reviewed and several different approaches to predicting their frequency-response characteristics are described. Some recent developments in the treatment of truncated, curved, and doubly periodic screens are mentioned and representative experimental results are included. >

1,003 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a bandpass frequency selective surface (FSS) is proposed, which is made up of periodic array of metallic patches separated by thin air-gaps backed by a wire mesh having the same periodicity.

Abstract: We demonstrate a new class of bandpass frequency selective surface (FSS), the building block of which, unlike the traditional FSSs, makes use of resonant dipole and slot structures that have dimensions much smaller than the operating wavelength. This design allows localization of bandpass characteristics to within a small area on the surface which in turn facilitates flexible spatial filtering for an arbitrary wave phasefront. The proposed FSS is made up of periodic array of metallic patches separated by thin air-gaps backed by a wire mesh having the same periodicity (Ltlambda). The array of metallic patches constitute a capacitive surface and the wire mesh a coupled inductive surface, which together act as a resonant structure in the path of an incident plane wave. Like traditional FSSs, the capacitive and inductive surfaces of the proposed FSS can easily be fabricated using printed circuit technology on both sides of microwave substrates. It is shown that by cascading such bandpass surfaces in a proper fashion, any arbitrary multipole filter or non-commensurate multiband response can be obtained. The frequency response of the proposed miniaturized-element frequency selective surface (MEFSS) is demonstrated for various incident angles and it is shown that one-pole designs are less sensitive than two-pole designs to the angle of incidence. Dual band designs are also possible based on two-pole designs, but are more sensitive to incident angle than single band designs because of their larger (in terms of wavelengths) spacing. Prototypes of single-pole and dual-pole MEFSSs are fabricated and tested in a waveguide environment at X-band frequencies and excellent agreements between the measured and simulated results are demonstrated

454 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the basic concepts involved in GPR are introduced briefly including the antennas, propagation, target scattering, and mapping, and a very brief description of the various applications of GPR is presented.

Abstract: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is considered as an environmental tool. The basic concepts involved in GPR are introduced briefly including the antennas, propagation, target scattering, and mapping. Target identification is important when using GPR since the scatterer can only be observed by evacuation. This is discussed in terms of mapping and complex natural resonances. GPR has been used and is being considered as a tool for the detection of a wide variety of subterranean features. A very brief description of the various applications of GPR is presented. In terms of environmental sensing, it has been applied to detect buried tanks, landfill debris, water levels, and contaminated fluids. The detection of various military devices also represent a serious environmental concern including landmines and unexploded ordnance. There are also possible applications involving the detection of buried utilities highway voids, grave sites. It has been used for examining archeological sites. The above list is far from complete because of the ever-expanding use of GPR. >

323 citations