Author

# Leona S. Aiken

Other affiliations: Drexel University, Oregon Health & Science University, University of British Columbia ...read more

Bio: Leona S. Aiken is an academic researcher from Arizona State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Linear regression & Regression analysis. The author has an hindex of 46, co-authored 130 publications receiving 66778 citations. Previous affiliations of Leona S. Aiken include Drexel University & Oregon Health & Science University.

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01 Jan 1975

TL;DR: In this article, the Mathematical Basis for Multiple Regression/Correlation and Identification of the Inverse Matrix Elements is presented. But it does not address the problem of missing data.

Abstract: Contents: Preface. Introduction. Bivariate Correlation and Regression. Multiple Regression/Correlation With Two or More Independent Variables. Data Visualization, Exploration, and Assumption Checking: Diagnosing and Solving Regression Problems I. Data-Analytic Strategies Using Multiple Regression/Correlation. Quantitative Scales, Curvilinear Relationships, and Transformations. Interactions Among Continuous Variables. Categorical or Nominal Independent Variables. Interactions With Categorical Variables. Outliers and Multicollinearity: Diagnosing and Solving Regression Problems II. Missing Data. Multiple Regression/Correlation and Causal Models. Alternative Regression Models: Logistic, Poisson Regression, and the Generalized Linear Model. Random Coefficient Regression and Multilevel Models. Longitudinal Regression Methods. Multiple Dependent Variables: Set Correlation. Appendices: The Mathematical Basis for Multiple Regression/Correlation and Identification of the Inverse Matrix Elements. Determination of the Inverse Matrix and Applications Thereof.

29,764 citations

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01 Jan 1991TL;DR: In this article, the effects of predictor scaling on the coefficients of regression equations are investigated. But, they focus mainly on the effect of predictors scaling on coefficients of regressions.

Abstract: Introduction Interactions between Continuous Predictors in Multiple Regression The Effects of Predictor Scaling on Coefficients of Regression Equations Testing and Probing Three-Way Interactions Structuring Regression Equations to Reflect Higher Order Relationships Model and Effect Testing with Higher Order Terms Interactions between Categorical and Continuous Variables Reliability and Statistical Power Conclusion Some Contrasts Between ANOVA and MR in Practice

27,897 citations

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TL;DR: Two variants of Poisson regression, overdispersedPoisson regression and negative binomial regression, are introduced that may provide more optimal results when a key assumption of standard Poisson regressors is violated.

Abstract: Count data reflect the number of occurrences of a behavior in a fixed period of time (e.g., number of aggressive acts by children during a playground period). In cases in which the outcome variable is a count with a low arithmetic mean (typically < 10), standard ordinary least squares regression may produce biased results. We provide an introduction to regression models that provide appropriate analyses for count data. We introduce standard Poisson regression with an example and discuss its interpretation. Two variants of Poisson regression, overdispersed Poisson regression and negative binomial regression, are introduced that may provide more optimal results when a key assumption of standard Poisson regression is violated. We also discuss the problems of excess zeros in which a subgroup of respondents who would never display the behavior are included in the sample and truncated zeros in which respondents who have a zero count are excluded by the sampling plan. We provide computer syntax for our illustrat...

875 citations

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TL;DR: It is concluded that centering rules valid for simple models, such as the fixed coefficients regression model, are no longer applicable to more complicated models,such as the random coefficient model.

Abstract: Multilevel models are becoming increasingly used in applied educational social and economic research for the analysis of hierarchically nested data. In these random coefficient regression models the parameters are allowed to differ over the groups in which the observations are nested. For computational ease in deriving parameter estimates, predictors are often centered around the mean. In nested or grouped data, the option of centering around the grand mean is extended with an option to center within groups or contexts. Both are statistically sound ways to improve parameter estimation. In this article we study the effects of these two different ways of centering, in comparison to the use of raw scores, on the parameter estimates in random coefficient models. The conclusion is that centering around the group mean amounts to fitting a different model from that obtained by centering around the grand mean or by using raw scores. The choice between the two options for centering can only be made on a theoretical basis. Based on this study, we conclude that centering rules valid for simple models, such as the fixed coefficients regression model. are no longer applicable to more complicated models, such as the random coefficient model. We think researchers should be made aware of the consequences of the choice of particular centering options.

802 citations

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TL;DR: This article seeks to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ, and delineates the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena.

Abstract: In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.

80,095 citations

01 Jan 1989

TL;DR: Regression analyses suggest that perceived ease of use may actually be a causal antecdent to perceived usefulness, as opposed to a parallel, direct determinant of system usage.

40,975 citations

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TL;DR: The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as mentioned in this paper is a unified model that integrates elements across the eight models, and empirically validate the unified model.

Abstract: Information technology (IT) acceptance research has yielded many competing models, each with different sets of acceptance determinants. In this paper, we (1) review user acceptance literature and discuss eight prominent models, (2) empirically compare the eight models and their extensions, (3) formulate a unified model that integrates elements across the eight models, and (4) empirically validate the unified model. The eight models reviewed are the theory of reasoned action, the technology acceptance model, the motivational model, the theory of planned behavior, a model combining the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior, the model of PC utilization, the innovation diffusion theory, and the social cognitive theory. Using data from four organizations over a six-month period with three points of measurement, the eight models explained between 17 percent and 53 percent of the variance in user intentions to use information technology. Next, a unified model, called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), was formulated, with four core determinants of intention and usage, and up to four moderators of key relationships. UTAUT was then tested using the original data and found to outperform the eight individual models (adjusted R2 of 69 percent). UTAUT was then confirmed with data from two new organizations with similar results (adjusted R2 of 70 percent). UTAUT thus provides a useful tool for managers needing to assess the likelihood of success for new technology introductions and helps them understand the drivers of acceptance in order to proactively design interventions (including training, marketing, etc.) targeted at populations of users that may be less inclined to adopt and use new systems. The paper also makes several recommendations for future research including developing a deeper understanding of the dynamic influences studied here, refining measurement of the core constructs used in UTAUT, and understanding the organizational outcomes associated with new technology use.

27,798 citations

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TL;DR: An overview of simple and multiple mediation is provided and three approaches that can be used to investigate indirect processes, as well as methods for contrasting two or more mediators within a single model are explored.

Abstract: Hypotheses involving mediation are common in the behavioral sciences. Mediation exists when a predictor affects a dependent variable indirectly through at least one intervening variable, or mediator. Methods to assess mediation involving multiple simultaneous mediators have received little attention in the methodological literature despite a clear need. We provide an overview of simple and multiple mediation and explore three approaches that can be used to investigate indirect processes, as well as methods for contrasting two or more mediators within a single model. We present an illustrative example, assessing and contrasting potential mediators of the relationship between the helpfulness of socialization agents and job satisfaction. We also provide SAS and SPSS macros, as well as Mplus and LISREL syntax, to facilitate the use of these methods in applications.

25,799 citations

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TL;DR: In the new version, procedures to analyze the power of tests based on single-sample tetrachoric correlations, comparisons of dependent correlations, bivariate linear regression, multiple linear regression based on the random predictor model, logistic regression, and Poisson regression are added.

Abstract: G*Power is a free power analysis program for a variety of statistical tests. We present extensions and improvements of the version introduced by Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, and Buchner (2007) in the domain of correlation and regression analyses. In the new version, we have added procedures to analyze the power of tests based on (1) single-sample tetrachoric correlations, (2) comparisons of dependent correlations, (3) bivariate linear regression, (4) multiple linear regression based on the random predictor model, (5) logistic regression, and (6) Poisson regression. We describe these new features and provide a brief introduction to their scope and handling.

20,778 citations