Leonard J. Cimini
Bio: Leonard J. Cimini is an academic researcher from University of Delaware. The author has contributed to research in topics: Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing & Channel state information. The author has an hindex of 53, co-authored 241 publications receiving 17096 citations. Previous affiliations of Leonard J. Cimini include AT&T & Alcatel-Lucent.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is shown that with noncoherent processing, a target's RCS spatial variations can be exploited to obtain a diversity gain for target detection and for estimation of various parameters, such as angle of arrival and Doppler.
Abstract: MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) radar refers to an architecture that employs multiple, spatially distributed transmitters and receivers. While, in a general sense, MIMO radar can be viewed as a type of multistatic radar, the separate nomenclature suggests unique features that set MIMO radar apart from the multistatic radar literature and that have a close relation to MIMO communications. This article reviews some recent work on MIMO radar with widely separated antennas. Widely separated transmit/receive antennas capture the spatial diversity of the target's radar cross section (RCS). Unique features of MIMO radar are explained and illustrated by examples. It is shown that with noncoherent processing, a target's RCS spatial variations can be exploited to obtain a diversity gain for target detection and for estimation of various parameters, such as angle of arrival and Doppler. For target location, it is shown that coherent processing can provide a resolution far exceeding that supported by the radar's waveform.
••26 Apr 2004
TL;DR: It is shown that MIMO radar leads to significant performance improvement in DF accuracy, and is carried out in terms of the Cramer-Rao bound of the mean-square error in estimating the target direction.
Abstract: It has recently been shown that multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems have the potential to improve dramatically the performance of communication systems over single antenna systems. Unlike beamforming, which presumes a high correlation between signals either transmitted or received by an array, the MIMO concept exploits the independence between signals at the array elements. In conventional radar, target scintillations are regarded as a nuisance parameter that degrades radar performance. The novelty of MIMO radar is that it takes the opposite view; namely, it capitalizes on target scintillations to improve the radar's performance. We introduce the MIMO concept for radar. The MIMO radar system under consideration consists of a transmit array with widely-spaced elements such that each views a different aspect of the target. The array at the receiver is a conventional array used for direction finding (DF). The system performance analysis is carried out in terms of the Cramer-Rao bound of the mean-square error in estimating the target direction. It is shown that MIMO radar leads to significant performance improvement in DF accuracy.
TL;DR: The optimal detector in the Neyman–Pearson sense is developed and analyzed for the statistical MIMO radar and it is shown that the optimal detector consists of noncoherent processing of the receiver sensors' outputs and that for cases of practical interest, detection performance is superior to that obtained through coherent processing.
Abstract: Inspired by recent advances in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications, this proposal introduces the statistical MIMO radar concept To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that the statistical MIMO is being proposed for radar The fundamental difference between statistical MIMO and other radar array systems is that the latter seek to maximize the coherent processing gain, while statistical MIMO radar capitalizes on the diversity of target scattering to improve radar performance Coherent processing is made possible by highly correlated signals at the receiver array, whereas in statistical MIMO radar, the signals received by the array elements are uncorrelated Radar targets generally consist of many small elemental scatterers that are fused by the radar waveform and the processing at the receiver, to result in echoes with fluctuating amplitude and phase It is well known that in conventional radar, slow fluctuations of the target radar cross section (RCS) result in target fades that degrade radar performance By spacing the antenna elements at the transmitter and at the receiver such that the target angular spread is manifested, the MIMO radar can exploit the spatial diversity of target scatterers opening the way to a variety of new techniques that can improve radar performance This paper focuses on the application of the target spatial diversity to improve detection performance The optimal detector in the Neyman–Pearson sense is developed and analyzed for the statistical MIMO radar It is shown that the optimal detector consists of noncoherent processing of the receiver sensors' outputs and that for cases of practical interest, detection performance is superior to that obtained through coherent processing An optimal detector invariant to the signal and noise levels is also developed and analyzed In this case as well, statistical MIMO radar provides great improvements over other types of array radars
TL;DR: This work investigates, through extensive computer simulations, the effects of clipping and filtering on the performance of OFDM, including the power spectral density, the crest factor, and the bit-error rate.
Abstract: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is an attractive technique for wireless communication applications. However, an OFDM signal has a large peak-to-mean envelope power ratio, which can result in significant distortion when passed through a nonlinear device, such as a transmitter power amplifier. We investigate, through extensive computer simulations, the effects of clipping and filtering on the performance of OFDM, including the power spectral density, the crest factor, and the bit-error rate. Our results show that clipping and filtering is a promising technique for the transmission of OFDM signals using realistic linear amplifiers.
TL;DR: A minimum mean-square-error (MMSE) channel estimator is derived, which makes full use of the time- and frequency-domain correlations of the frequency response of time-varying dispersive fading channels and can significantly improve the performance of OFDM systems in a rapid dispersion fading channel.
Abstract: Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation is a promising technique for achieving the high bit rates required for a wireless multimedia service. Without channel estimation and tracking, OFDM systems have to use differential phase-shift keying (DPSK), which has a 3-dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss compared with coherent phase-shift keying (PSK). To improve the performance of OFDM systems by using coherent PSK, we investigate robust channel estimation for OFDM systems. We derive a minimum mean-square-error (MMSE) channel estimator, which makes full use of the time- and frequency-domain correlations of the frequency response of time-varying dispersive fading channels. Since the channel statistics are usually unknown, we also analyze the mismatch of the estimator-to-channel statistics and propose a robust channel estimator that is insensitive to the channel statistics. The robust channel estimator can significantly improve the performance of OFDM systems in a rapid dispersive fading channel.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider the design of channel codes for improving the data rate and/or the reliability of communications over fading channels using multiple transmit antennas and derive performance criteria for designing such codes under the assumption that the fading is slow and frequency nonselective.
Abstract: We consider the design of channel codes for improving the data rate and/or the reliability of communications over fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded by a channel code and the encoded data is split into n streams that are simultaneously transmitted using n transmit antennas. The received signal at each receive antenna is a linear superposition of the n transmitted signals perturbed by noise. We derive performance criteria for designing such codes under the assumption that the fading is slow and frequency nonselective. Performance is shown to be determined by matrices constructed from pairs of distinct code sequences. The minimum rank among these matrices quantifies the diversity gain, while the minimum determinant of these matrices quantifies the coding gain. The results are then extended to fast fading channels. The design criteria are used to design trellis codes for high data rate wireless communication. The encoding/decoding complexity of these codes is comparable to trellis codes employed in practice over Gaussian channels. The codes constructed here provide the best tradeoff between data rate, diversity advantage, and trellis complexity. Simulation results are provided for 4 and 8 PSK signal sets with data rates of 2 and 3 bits/symbol, demonstrating excellent performance that is within 2-3 dB of the outage capacity for these channels using only 64 state encoders.
TL;DR: The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms multiuser OFDM systems with static time-division multiple access (TDMA) or frequency-divisionmultiple access (FDMA) techniques which employ fixed and predetermined time-slot or subcarrier allocation schemes.
Abstract: Multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with adaptive multiuser subcarrier allocation and adaptive modulation is considered. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all users, we propose a multiuser OFDM subcarrier, bit, and power allocation algorithm to minimize the total transmit power. This is done by assigning each user a set of subcarriers and by determining the number of bits and the transmit power level for each subcarrier. We obtain the performance of our proposed algorithm in a multiuser frequency selective fading environment for various time delay spread values and various numbers of users. The results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms multiuser OFDM systems with static time-division multiple access (TDMA) or frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) techniques which employ fixed and predetermined time-slot or subcarrier allocation schemes. We have also quantified the improvement in terms of the overall required transmit power, the bit-error rate (BER), or the area of coverage for a given outage probability.
••01 May 1975
TL;DR: The Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition as discussed by the authors provides a comprehensive overview of simple and more advanced queuing models, with a self-contained presentation of key concepts and formulae.
Abstract: Praise for the Third Edition: "This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented."IIE Transactions on Operations EngineeringThoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition continues to present the basic statistical principles that are necessary to analyze the probabilistic nature of queues. Rather than presenting a narrow focus on the subject, this update illustrates the wide-reaching, fundamental concepts in queueing theory and its applications to diverse areas such as computer science, engineering, business, and operations research.This update takes a numerical approach to understanding and making probable estimations relating to queues, with a comprehensive outline of simple and more advanced queueing models. Newly featured topics of the Fourth Edition include:Retrial queuesApproximations for queueing networksNumerical inversion of transformsDetermining the appropriate number of servers to balance quality and cost of serviceEach chapter provides a self-contained presentation of key concepts and formulae, allowing readers to work with each section independently, while a summary table at the end of the book outlines the types of queues that have been discussed and their results. In addition, two new appendices have been added, discussing transforms and generating functions as well as the fundamentals of differential and difference equations. New examples are now included along with problems that incorporate QtsPlus software, which is freely available via the book's related Web site.With its accessible style and wealth of real-world examples, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition is an ideal book for courses on queueing theory at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners who analyze congestion in the fields of telecommunications, transportation, aviation, and management science.
TL;DR: This article surveys frequency domain equalization (FDE) applied to single-carrier (SC) modulation solutions and discusses similarities and differences of SC and OFDM systems and coexistence possibilities, and presents examples of SC-FDE performance capabilities.
Abstract: Broadband wireless access systems deployed in residential and business environments are likely to face hostile radio propagation environments, with multipath delay spread extending over tens or hundreds of bit intervals. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplex (OFDM) is a recognized multicarrier solution to combat the effects of such multipath conditions. This article surveys frequency domain equalization (FDE) applied to single-carrier (SC) modulation solutions. SC radio modems with frequency domain equalization have similar performance, efficiency, and low signal processing complexity advantages as OFDM, and in addition are less sensitive than OFDM to RF impairments such as power amplifier nonlinearities. We discuss similarities and differences of SC and OFDM systems and coexistence possibilities, and present examples of SC-FDE performance capabilities.
24 Apr 2002
TL;DR: Results show that remarkable energy and spectral efficiencies are achievable by combining concepts drawn from space-time coding, multiuser detection, array processing and iterative decoding.
Abstract: Space-time codes (STC) are a class of signaling techniques, offering coding and diversity gains along with improved spectral efficiency. These codes exploit both the spatial and the temporal diversity of the wireless link by combining the design of the error correction code, modulation scheme and array processing. STC are well suited for improving the downlink performance, which is the bottleneck in asymmetric applications such as downstream Internet. Three original contributions to the area of STC are presented in this dissertation. First, the development of analytic tools that determine the fundamental limits on the performance of STC in a variety of channel conditions. For trellis-type STC, transfer function based techniques are applied to derive performance bounds over Rayleigh, Rician and correlated fading environments. For block-type STC, an analytic framework that supports various complex orthogonal designs with arbitrary signal cardinalities and array configurations is developed. In the second part of the dissertation, the Virginia Tech Space-Time Advanced Radio (VT-STAR) is designed, introducing a multi-antenna hardware laboratory test bed, which facilitates characterization of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel and validation of various space-time approaches. In the third part of the dissertation, two novel space-time architectures paired with iterative processing principles are proposed. The first scheme extends the suitability of STC to outdoor wireless communications by employing iterative equalization/decoding for time dispersive channels and the second scheme employs iterative interference cancellation/decoding to solve the error propagation problem of Bell-Labs Layered Space-Time Architecture (BLAST). Results show that remarkable energy and spectral efficiencies are achievable by combining concepts drawn from space-time coding, multiuser detection, array processing and iterative decoding.