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Leonardo Del Bino

Bio: Leonardo Del Bino is an academic researcher from Max Planck Society. The author has contributed to research in topics: Resonator & Kerr effect. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 53 publications receiving 525 citations. Previous affiliations of Leonardo Del Bino include National Physical Laboratory & Heriot-Watt University.

Papers published on a yearly basis

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nonreciprocity and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators are demonstrated and pave the way for a variety of applications including optically controllable circulators and isolators, all-optical switching, nonlinear-enhanced rotation sensing, optical flip-flops for photonic memories as well as exceptionally sensitive power and refractive index sensors.
Abstract: Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a concept of fundamental importance in many areas of physics, underpinning such diverse phenomena as ferromagnetism, superconductivity, superfluidity and the Higgs mechanism. Here we demonstrate nonreciprocity and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) states of light to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, this effect can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. Our findings pave the way for a variety of applications including optically controllable circulators and isolators, all-optical switching, nonlinear-enhanced rotation sensing, optical flip-flops for photonic memories as well as exceptionally sensitive power and refractive index sensors.

127 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the nonlinear interaction between counterpropagating light in a Kerr medium leads to spontaneous symmetry breaking, with the result that light of a given frequency can circulate in one direction, but not in both directions simultaneously.
Abstract: Nonreciprocal light propagation is important in many applications, ranging from optical telecommunications to integrated photonics. A simple way to achieve optical nonreciprocity is to use the nonlinear interaction between counterpropagating light in a Kerr medium. Within a ring resonator, this leads to spontaneous symmetry breaking, with the result that light of a given frequency can circulate in one direction, but not in both directions simultaneously. In this work, we demonstrate that this effect can be used to realize optical isolators and circulators based on a single ultra- high-Q microresonator. We obtain isolation of more than 24 dB and develop a theoretical model for the power scaling of the attainable nonreciprocity.

116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Feb 2019
TL;DR: In this article, a robust and simple way to increase the soliton access window by using an auxiliary laser that passively stabilizes intracavity power was proposed. But this scheme does not address the problem of the sudden change in circulating power (soliton step) during transition into soliton regime.
Abstract: The recent demonstration of dissipative Kerr solitons in microresonators has opened a new pathway for the generation of ultrashort pulses and low-noise frequency combs with gigahertz to terahertz repetition rates, enabling applications in frequency metrology, astronomy, optical coherent communications, and laser-based ranging. A main challenge for soliton generation, in particular in ultra-high-Q resonators, is the sudden change in circulating intracavity power during the onset of soliton generation. This sudden power change requires precise control of the seed laser frequency and power or fast control of the resonator temperature. Here, we report a robust and simple way to increase the soliton access window by using an auxiliary laser that passively stabilizes intracavity power. In our experiments with fused silica resonators, we are able to extend the access range of microresonator solitons by two orders of magnitude, which enables soliton generation by slow and manual tuning of the pump laser into resonance and at unprecedented low power levels. Importantly, this scheme eliminates the sudden change in circulating power (“soliton step”) during transition into the soliton regime. Both single- and multi-soliton mode-locked states are generated in a 1.3-mm-diameter fused silica microrod resonator with a free spectral range of ∼50.6 GHz, at a 1554 nm pump wavelength at threshold powers <3 mW. Moreover, with a smaller 230-μm-diameter microrod, we demonstrate soliton generation at 780 μW threshold power. The passive enhancement of the soliton access range paves the way for robust and low-threshold microcomb systems and has the potential to be a practical tool for soliton microcomb generation.

109 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Mar 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the nonlinear interaction between counter-propagating light in a Kerr medium is exploited to achieve optical non-reciprocity, which can be used to realize optical isolators and circulators based on a single ultra-high-Q microresonator.
Abstract: Nonreciprocal light propagation is important in many applications, ranging from optical telecommunications to integrated photonics. A simple way to achieve optical nonreciprocity is to use the nonlinear interaction between counterpropagating light in a Kerr medium. Within a ring resonator, this leads to spontaneous symmetry breaking, resulting in light of a given frequency circulating in one direction, but not in both directions simultaneously. In this work, we demonstrate that this effect can be used to realize optical isolators and circulators based on a single ultra-high-Q microresonator. We obtain isolation of >24 dB and develop a theoretical model for the power scaling of the attainable nonreciprocity.

99 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present analytical and dynamical models for the nonlinear Kerr interaction of counterpropagating light in a dielectric ring resonator, indicating divergent sensitivity to small external perturbations.
Abstract: Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important concept in many areas of physics. A fundamentally simple symmetry-breaking mechanism in electrodynamics occurs between counterpropagating electromagnetic waves in ring resonators, mediated by the Kerr nonlinearity. The interaction of counterpropagating light in bidirectionally pumped microresonators finds application in the realization of optical nonreciprocity (for optical diodes), studies of PT-symmetric systems, and the generation of counterpropagating solitons. Here, we present comprehensive analytical and dynamical models for the nonlinear Kerr interaction of counterpropagating light in a dielectric ring resonator. In particular, we study discontinuous behavior in the onset of spontaneous symmetry breaking, indicating divergent sensitivity to small external perturbations. These results can be applied to realize, for example, highly sensitive near-field or rotation sensors. We then generalize to a time-dependent model, which predicts different types of dynamical behavior, including oscillatory regimes that could enable Kerr-nonlinearity-driven all-optical oscillators. The physics of our model can be applied to other systems featuring Kerr-type interaction between two distinct modes, such as for light of opposite circular polarization in nonlinear resonators, which are commonly described by coupled Lugiato-Lefever equations.

54 citations


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01 Jun 2005

3,154 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Feb 2018-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that optical frequency combs generated by microresonator devices can be used for precision ranging and the tracking of fast-moving objects and the chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems suitable for photonic integration.
Abstract: Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

398 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify and characterize soliton crystals through analysis of their fingerprint optical spectra, which arise from spectral interference between the solitons, and perform time-domain measurements to directly confirm their inference of their crystal structure.
Abstract: Self-organized solitons confined to an optical resonator would offer unique capabilities for experiments in communication, computation and sensing with light. Here, we report the observation of soliton crystals in monolithic Kerr microresonators—spontaneously and collectively ordered ensembles of co-propagating solitons whose interactions discretize their allowed temporal separations. We unambiguously identify and characterize soliton crystals through analysis of their ‘fingerprint’ optical spectra, which arise from spectral interference between the solitons. We identify a rich space of soliton crystals exhibiting crystallographic defects and we perform time-domain measurements to directly confirm our inference of their crystal structure. Soliton crystallization is explained by long-range soliton interactions mediated by resonator mode degeneracies, and we probe the qualitative difference between soliton crystals and the disorganized soliton liquid that would form in the absence of these interactions. Our work explores the physics of monolithic Kerr resonators in a regime of dense soliton occupation and offers a way to increase the efficiency of Kerr combs. Furthermore, the extreme degeneracy of the configuration space of soliton crystals suggests an implementation for an on-chip optical buffer. The observation of soliton crystals in monolithic Kerr microresonators is reported. The physics of such resonators is explored in a regime of dense soliton occupation, offering a way to increase the efficiency of Kerr combs.

321 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
14 May 2020-Nature
TL;DR: This approach provides a technological basis for compact, massively parallel and ultrahigh-frame-rate coherent lidar systems and has the potential to improve sampling rates beyond 150 megapixels per second and to increase the image refresh rate of the FMCW lidar by up to two orders of magnitude without deterioration of eye safety.
Abstract: Coherent ranging, also known as frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) laser-based light detection and ranging (lidar)1 is used for long-range three-dimensional distance and velocimetry in autonomous driving2,3. FMCW lidar maps distance to frequency4,5 using frequency-chirped waveforms and simultaneously measures the Doppler shift of the reflected laser light, similar to sonar or radar6,7 and coherent detection prevents interference from sunlight and other lidar systems. However, coherent ranging has a lower acquisition speed and requires precisely chirped8 and highly coherent5 laser sources, hindering widespread use of the lidar system and impeding parallelization, compared to modern time-of-flight ranging systems that use arrays of individual lasers. Here we demonstrate a massively parallel coherent lidar scheme using an ultra-low-loss photonic chip-based soliton microcomb9. By fast chirping of the pump laser in the soliton existence range10 of a microcomb with amplitudes of up to several gigahertz and a sweep rate of up to ten megahertz, a rapid frequency change occurs in the underlying carrier waveform of the soliton pulse stream, but the pulse-to-pulse repetition rate of the soliton pulse stream is retained. As a result, the chirp from a single narrow-linewidth pump laser is transferred to all spectral comb teeth of the soliton at once, thus enabling parallelism in the FMCW lidar. Using this approach we generate 30 distinct channels, demonstrating both parallel distance and velocity measurements at an equivalent rate of three megapixels per second, with the potential to improve sampling rates beyond 150 megapixels per second and to increase the image refresh rate of the FMCW lidar by up to two orders of magnitude without deterioration of eye safety. This approach, when combined with photonic phase arrays11 based on nanophotonic gratings12, provides a technological basis for compact, massively parallel and ultrahigh-frame-rate coherent lidar systems. A massively parallel coherent light detection and ranging (lidar) scheme using a soliton microcomb—a light source that emits a wide spectrum of sharp lines with equally spaced frequencies—is described.

306 citations