Author

# Li Deng

Other affiliations: University of Wisconsin-Madison, McGill University, Institut national de la recherche scientifique ...read more

Bio: Li Deng is an academic researcher from Microsoft. The author has contributed to research in topics: Hidden Markov model & Speech processing. The author has an hindex of 97, co-authored 621 publications receiving 55615 citations. Previous affiliations of Li Deng include University of Wisconsin-Madison & McGill University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: This article provides an overview of progress and represents the shared views of four research groups that have had recent successes in using DNNs for acoustic modeling in speech recognition.

Abstract: Most current speech recognition systems use hidden Markov models (HMMs) to deal with the temporal variability of speech and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to determine how well each state of each HMM fits a frame or a short window of frames of coefficients that represents the acoustic input. An alternative way to evaluate the fit is to use a feed-forward neural network that takes several frames of coefficients as input and produces posterior probabilities over HMM states as output. Deep neural networks (DNNs) that have many hidden layers and are trained using new methods have been shown to outperform GMMs on a variety of speech recognition benchmarks, sometimes by a large margin. This article provides an overview of this progress and represents the shared views of four research groups that have had recent successes in using DNNs for acoustic modeling in speech recognition.

9,091 citations

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TL;DR: A pre-trained deep neural network hidden Markov model (DNN-HMM) hybrid architecture that trains the DNN to produce a distribution over senones (tied triphone states) as its output that can significantly outperform the conventional context-dependent Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-HMMs.

Abstract: We propose a novel context-dependent (CD) model for large-vocabulary speech recognition (LVSR) that leverages recent advances in using deep belief networks for phone recognition. We describe a pre-trained deep neural network hidden Markov model (DNN-HMM) hybrid architecture that trains the DNN to produce a distribution over senones (tied triphone states) as its output. The deep belief network pre-training algorithm is a robust and often helpful way to initialize deep neural networks generatively that can aid in optimization and reduce generalization error. We illustrate the key components of our model, describe the procedure for applying CD-DNN-HMMs to LVSR, and analyze the effects of various modeling choices on performance. Experiments on a challenging business search dataset demonstrate that CD-DNN-HMMs can significantly outperform the conventional context-dependent Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-HMMs, with an absolute sentence accuracy improvement of 5.8% and 9.2% (or relative error reduction of 16.0% and 23.2%) over the CD-GMM-HMMs trained using the minimum phone error rate (MPE) and maximum-likelihood (ML) criteria, respectively.

3,120 citations

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Microsoft

^{1}TL;DR: This monograph provides an overview of general deep learning methodology and its applications to a variety of signal and information processing tasks, including natural language and text processing, information retrieval, and multimodal information processing empowered by multi-task deep learning.

Abstract: This monograph provides an overview of general deep learning methodology and its applications to a variety of signal and information processing tasks. The application areas are chosen with the following three criteria in mind: (1) expertise or knowledge of the authors; (2) the application areas that have already been transformed by the successful use of deep learning technology, such as speech recognition and computer vision; and (3) the application areas that have the potential to be impacted significantly by deep learning and that have been experiencing research growth, including natural language and text processing, information retrieval, and multimodal information processing empowered by multi-task deep learning.

2,817 citations

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TL;DR: This paper provides an overview of this progress and repres nts the shared views of four research groups who have had recent successes in using deep neural networks for a coustic modeling in speech recognition.

Abstract: Most current speech recognition systems use hidden Markov models (HMMs) to deal with the temporal variability of speech and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to determine how well each state of each HMM fits a frame or a short window of frames of coefficients that represents the acoustic input. An alternative way to evaluate the fit is to use a feed-forward neural network that takes several frames of coefficients as input and produces posterior probabilities over HMM states as output. Deep neural networks (DNNs) that have many hidden layers and are trained using new methods have been shown to outperform GMMs on a variety of speech recognition benchmarks, sometimes by a large margin. This article provides an overview of this progress and represents the shared views of four research groups that have had recent successes in using DNNs for acoustic modeling in speech recognition.

2,527 citations

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01 May 2015

TL;DR: It is found that embeddings learned from the bilinear objective are particularly good at capturing relational semantics and that the composition of relations is characterized by matrix multiplication.

Abstract: We consider learning representations of entities and relations in KBs using the neural-embedding approach. We show that most existing models, including NTN (Socher et al., 2013) and TransE (Bordes et al., 2013b), can be generalized under a unified learning framework, where entities are low-dimensional vectors learned from a neural network and relations are bilinear and/or linear mapping functions. Under this framework, we compare a variety of embedding models on the link prediction task. We show that a simple bilinear formulation achieves new state-of-the-art results for the task (achieving a top-10 accuracy of 73.2% vs. 54.7% by TransE on Freebase). Furthermore, we introduce a novel approach that utilizes the learned relation embeddings to mine logical rules such as "BornInCity(a,b) and CityInCountry(b,c) => Nationality(a,c)". We find that embeddings learned from the bilinear objective are particularly good at capturing relational semantics and that the composition of relations is characterized by matrix multiplication. More interestingly, we demonstrate that our embedding-based rule extraction approach successfully outperforms a state-of-the-art confidence-based rule mining approach in mining Horn rules that involve compositional reasoning.

2,132 citations

##### Cited by

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01 Jan 2015TL;DR: This work introduces Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments, and provides a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework.

Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

111,197 citations

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[...]

New York University

^{1}, Facebook^{2}, Université de Montréal^{3}, University of Toronto^{4}, Google^{5}TL;DR: Deep learning is making major advances in solving problems that have resisted the best attempts of the artificial intelligence community for many years, and will have many more successes in the near future because it requires very little engineering by hand and can easily take advantage of increases in the amount of available computation and data.

Abstract: Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

46,982 citations

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08 Dec 2014TL;DR: A new framework for estimating generative models via an adversarial process, in which two models are simultaneously train: a generative model G that captures the data distribution and a discriminative model D that estimates the probability that a sample came from the training data rather than G.

Abstract: We propose a new framework for estimating generative models via an adversarial process, in which we simultaneously train two models: a generative model G that captures the data distribution, and a discriminative model D that estimates the probability that a sample came from the training data rather than G. The training procedure for G is to maximize the probability of D making a mistake. This framework corresponds to a minimax two-player game. In the space of arbitrary functions G and D, a unique solution exists, with G recovering the training data distribution and D equal to ½ everywhere. In the case where G and D are defined by multilayer perceptrons, the entire system can be trained with backpropagation. There is no need for any Markov chains or unrolled approximate inference networks during either training or generation of samples. Experiments demonstrate the potential of the framework through qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the generated samples.

38,211 citations

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18 Nov 2016

TL;DR: Deep learning as mentioned in this paper is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts, and it is used in many applications such as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames.

Abstract: Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.

38,208 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the adaptive estimates of lower-order moments are used for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimate of lowerorder moments.

Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

23,486 citations