Other affiliations: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Scripps Research Institute ...read more
Bio: Li Zhang is an academic researcher from University of California, San Francisco. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Computer science. The author has an hindex of 92, co-authored 918 publications receiving 35648 citations. Previous affiliations of Li Zhang include Hong Kong University of Science and Technology & University of Southern California.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A top-down biomimetic approach in particle functionalization is reported by coating biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles with natural erythrocyte membranes, including both membrane lipids and associated membrane proteins for long-circulating cargo delivery.
Abstract: Efforts to extend nanoparticle residence time in vivo have inspired many strategies in particle surface modifications to bypass macrophage uptake and systemic clearance. Here we report a top-down biomimetic approach in particle functionalization by coating biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles with natural erythrocyte membranes, including both membrane lipids and associated membrane proteins for long-circulating cargo delivery. The structure, size and surface zeta potential, and protein contents of the erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles were verified using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and gel electrophoresis, respectively. Mice injections with fluorophore-loaded nanoparticles revealed superior circulation half-life by the erythrocyte-mimicking nanoparticles as compared to control particles coated with the state-of-the-art synthetic stealth materials. Biodistribution study revealed significant particle retention in the blood 72 h following the particle injection. The translocation of natural cellular membranes, their associated proteins, and the corresponding functionalities to the surface of synthetic particles represents a unique approach in nanoparticle functionalization.
TL;DR: VEGF can markedly enhance angiogenesis in the ischemic brain and reduce neurological deficits during stroke recovery and that inhibition of VEGF at the acute stage of stroke may reduce the BBB permeability and the risk of hemorrhagic transformation after focal cerebral ischemia.
Abstract: VEGF is a secreted mitogen associated with angiogenesis and is also a potent vascular permeability factor. The biological role of VEGF in the ischemic brain remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate whether VEGF enhances cerebral microvascular perfusion and increases blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage in the ischemic brain. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), three-dimensional laser-scanning confocal microscope, and functional neurological tests, we measured the effects of administrating recombinant human VEGF(165) (rhVEGF(165)) on angiogenesis, functional neurological outcome, and BBB leakage in a rat model of focal cerebral embolic ischemia. Late (48 hours) administration of rhVEGF(165) to the ischemic rats enhanced angiogenesis in the ischemic penumbra and significantly improved neurological recovery. However, early postischemic (1 hour) administration of rhVEGF(165) to ischemic rats significantly increased BBB leakage, hemorrhagic transformation, and ischemic lesions. Administration of rhVEGF(165) to ischemic rats did not change BBB leakage and cerebral plasma perfusion in the contralateral hemisphere. Our results indicate that VEGF can markedly enhance angiogenesis in the ischemic brain and reduce neurological deficits during stroke recovery and that inhibition of VEGF at the acute stage of stroke may reduce the BBB permeability and the risk of hemorrhagic transformation after focal cerebral ischemia.
TL;DR: Beta-blockers are associated with a significant reduction in cardiac events in LQTS patients, particularly in those who were symptomatic before starting this therapy, and these events continue to occur while patients are on prescribed beta-blocker therapy.
Abstract: Background—β-blockers are routinely prescribed in congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS), but the effectiveness and limitations of β-blockers in this disorder have not been evaluated. Methods and Results—The study population comprised 869 LQTS patients treated with β-blockers. Effectiveness of β-blockers was analyzed during matched periods before and after starting β-blocker therapy, and by survivorship methods to determine factors associated with cardiac events while on prescribed β-blockers. After initiation of β-blockers, there was a significant (P<0.001) reduction in the rate of cardiac events in probands (0.97±1.42 to 0.31±0.86 events per year) and in affected family members (0.26±0.84 to 0.15±0.69 events per year) during 5-year matched periods. On-therapy survivorship analyses revealed that patients with cardiac symptoms before β-blockers (n=598) had a hazard ratio of 5.8 (95% CI, 3.7 to 9.1) for recurrent cardiac events (syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, or death) during β-blocker therapy compared with ...
TL;DR: In this article, the authors show that most wetlands, when compared to methane emissions, do not have 25 times more CO2 sequestration than methane emissions; therefore, to many landscape managers and non specialists, most wetlands would be considered by some to be sources of climate warming or net radiative forcing.
Abstract: Wetland ecosystems provide an optimum natural environment for the sequestration and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, yet are natural sources of greenhouse gases emissions, especially methane. We illustrate that most wetlands, when carbon sequestration is compared to methane emissions, do not have 25 times more CO2 sequestration than methane emissions; therefore, to many landscape managers and non specialists, most wetlands would be considered by some to be sources of climate warming or net radiative forcing. We show by dynamic modeling of carbon flux results from seven detailed studies by us of temperate and tropical wetlands and from 14 other wetland studies by others that methane emissions become unimportant within 300 years compared to carbon sequestration in wetlands. Within that time frame or less, most wetlands become both net carbon and radiative sinks. Furthermore, we estimate that the world’s wetlands, despite being only about 5–8 % of the terrestrial landscape, may currently be net carbon sinks of about 830 Tg/year of carbon with an average of 118 g-C m−2 year−1 of net carbon retention. Most of that carbon retention occurs in tropical/subtropical wetlands. We demonstrate that almost all wetlands are net radiative sinks when balancing carbon sequestration and methane emissions and conclude that wetlands can be created and restored to provide C sequestration and other ecosystem services without great concern of creating net radiative sources on the climate due to methane emissions.
TL;DR: The ruthenium-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (RuAAC) appears to proceed via oxidative coupling of the azide and alkyne reactants to give a six-membered rUThenacycle intermediate, in which the first new carbon-nitrogen bond is formed between the more electronegative carbon of the alkynes and the terminal, electrophilic nitrogen of the Azide.
Abstract: The catalytic activity of a series of ruthenium(II) complexes in azide−alkyne cycloadditions has been evaluated. The [Cp*RuCl] complexes, such as Cp*RuCl(PPh3)2, Cp*RuCl(COD), and Cp*RuCl(NBD), were among the most effective catalysts. In the presence of catalytic Cp*RuCl(PPh3)2 or Cp*RuCl(COD), primary and secondary azides react with a broad range of terminal alkynes containing a range of functionalities selectively producing 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles; tertiary azides were significantly less reactive. Both complexes also promote the cycloaddition reactions of organic azides with internal alkynes, providing access to fully-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles. The ruthenium-catalyzed azide−alkyne cycloaddition (RuAAC) appears to proceed via oxidative coupling of the azide and alkyne reactants to give a six-membered ruthenacycle intermediate, in which the first new carbon−nitrogen bond is formed between the more electronegative carbon of the alkyne and the terminal, electrophilic nitrogen of the azide. This ...
28 Jul 2005
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: Nine tentative hallmarks that represent common denominators of aging in different organisms are enumerated, with special emphasis on mammalian aging, to identify pharmaceutical targets to improve human health during aging, with minimal side effects.
Abstract: Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. This deterioration is the primary risk factor for major human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Aging research has experienced an unprecedented advance over recent years, particularly with the discovery that the rate of aging is controlled, at least to some extent, by genetic pathways and biochemical processes conserved in evolution. This Review enumerates nine tentative hallmarks that represent common denominators of aging in different organisms, with special emphasis on mammalian aging. These hallmarks are: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. A major challenge is to dissect the interconnectedness between the candidate hallmarks and their relative contributions to aging, with the final goal of identifying pharmaceutical targets to improve human health during aging, with minimal side effects.
TL;DR: High-resolution maps for the genome-wide distribution of 20 histone lysine and arginine methylations as well as histone variant H2A.Z, RNA polymerase II, and the insulator binding protein CTCF across the human genome using the Solexa 1G sequencing technology are generated.
Abstract: Histone modifications are implicated in influencing gene expression. We have generated high-resolution maps for the genome-wide distribution of 20 histone lysine and arginine methylations as well as histone variant H2A.Z, RNA polymerase II, and the insulator binding protein CTCF across the human genome using the Solexa 1G sequencing technology. Typical patterns of histone methylations exhibited at promoters, insulators, enhancers, and transcribed regions are identified. The monomethylations of H3K27, H3K9, H4K20, H3K79, and H2BK5 are all linked to gene activation, whereas trimethylations of H3K27, H3K9, and H3K79 are linked to repression. H2A.Z associates with functional regulatory elements, and CTCF marks boundaries of histone methylation domains. Chromosome banding patterns are correlated with unique patterns of histone modifications. Chromosome breakpoints detected in T cell cancers frequently reside in chromatin regions associated with H3K4 methylations. Our data provide new insights into the function of histone methylation and chromatin organization in genome function.