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Author

Lin Huang

Other affiliations: University of Western Australia
Bio: Lin Huang is an academic researcher from The Chinese University of Hong Kong. The author has contributed to research in topics: Giant-cell tumor of bone & Stromal cell. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 20 publications receiving 1186 citations. Previous affiliations of Lin Huang include University of Western Australia.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that tumor cells of GCT induce differentiation of RANK-expressing myeloid RAW(264.7) cells into osteoclast-like cells in the presence of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and dexamethasone, and that the level of OPGL mRNA in GCT is much higher than that in normal bone and osteogenic osteosarcoma.
Abstract: Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a rare primary osteolytic tumor of bone that is characterized by massive tissue destruction at the epiphysis of long bones. There is no evidence that tumor cells themselves are capable of bone destruction; instead, it appears that the tumor cells of GCT act by promoting osteoclastogenesis and, as a consequence, osteoclastic bone resorption. However, the mechanism by which this is achieved is not understood. Here we attempted to determine whether osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), the factor that is necessary and essential for osteoclastogenesis, is involved in tumor cell-recruited osteoclast-like giant cell formation in GCT. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we sought to determine mRNA expression of OPGL, its receptor RANK, and its decoy receptor OPG in three major cell types of GCT. We demonstrated that OPG mRNA was expressed in all three cell types of GCT, OPGL transcripts were mainly detected in spindle-shaped stromal-like tumor cells, whereas RANK was expressed only in macrophage-like mononuclear cells and multinuclear osteoclast-like giant cells. By semiquantitative RT-PCR, we also showed that the level of OPGL mRNA in GCT is much higher than that in normal bone and osteogenic osteosarcoma. In contrast, a similar level of OPG transcripts was detected in these three kinds of tissues, and RANK mRNA was detectable only in GCT tissues. We have further examined the regulation of gene expression of OPGL and OPG in tumor cells in response to osteotropic hormones. Administration of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and dexamethasone resulted in maximum up-regulation of OPGL level and down-regulation of OPG level in cultured GCT stromal-like tumor cells and the mouse bone marrow-derived ST-2 stromal cell line. Furthermore, we have shown that tumor cells of GCT induce differentiation of RANK-expressing myeloid RAW 264.7 cells into osteoclast-like cells in the presence of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and dexamethasone. Our findings suggest that OPGL is involved in the tumor cell-induced osteoclast-like cell formation in GCT. The ratio of OPGL/OPG by tumor cells may contribute to the degree of osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.

251 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2008-Bone
TL;DR: Clinical use of bisphosphonates as an adjuvant therapy for giant cell tumor of bone demonstrated a lower local recurrence rate and the clinical response seems to be more promising in stage III diseases.

192 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results showed that GST‐rRANKL (aa160‐318) containing the full TNF‐like core region had the highest capability to induce the formation of osteoclast‐like cells from RAW264.7 cells.
Abstract: A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the rat homologue of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ligand/osteoclast differentiation factor/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related activation-induced cytokine (RANKL/OPGL/ODF/TRANCE) was cloned and sequenced from tibias of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The predicted amino acid sequence of rat RANKL (rRANKL) has 84% and 96% identity to that of human and mouse RANKL, respectively, and 35% and 37% similarity to that of human and mouse TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), respectively. RANKL transcripts were expressed abundantly in the thymus and bone tissues of OVX rats. rRANKL has a single hydrophobic region between residues 53 and 69, which is most likely to serve as a transmembrane domain. The long C-terminal region containing β-sheet-forming sequences of the TNF-like core is considered the extracellular region. Three truncated domains within the TNF-like core region were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and investigated for their ability to induce osteoclastogenesis. The results showed that GST-rRANKL (aa160-318) containing the full TNF-like core region had the highest capability to induce the formation of osteoclast-like cells from RAW264.7 cells. GST-rRANKL (aa239-318 and aa160-268) had lesser degrees of osteoclast inductivity. Furthermore, the GST-rRANKL (aa160-318) is capable of (1) inducing osteoclast formation from rat spleen cells in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), (2) stimulating mature rat osteoclast polarization and bone resorption ex vivo, and (3) inducing systemic hypercalcemia in vivo; thus the full TNF-like core region of rRANKL is an important regulator of calcium homeostasis and osteoclastic function.

162 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: VEGF and MMP-9 expression in osteolytic lesions of bone co-relates well with the extent of bone destruction and local recurrence, and may provide some prognostic indication of the possible aggressive behavior of the underlying pathology.

113 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results showed that pamidronate significantly induced apoptosis in both osteoclast-like giant cells and stromal tumor cells, in vivo, and suggest that these drugs may be considered as potential adjuvants in the treatment of GCT.
Abstract: Giant cell tumour of bone (GCT) is an aggressive primary neoplasm that results in the production of osteolytic lesions. Stromal cells, which form the main neoplastic component of this tumor, regulate the formation of osleoclast-like giant cells that are ultimately responsible for bone destruction. Bisphosphonates prevent bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast activity and promoting osteoclast apoptosis, and they have been known to induce apoptosis of primary neoplastic cells such as those in breast and prostate cancers. We hypothesized that in bisphosphonates may induce apoptosis not only in osteoclast-like giant cells but also in neoplastic stromal cells of GCT both in vitro and in vivo. Twelve patients with GCT were treated with weekly injections of pamidronate for a period of 6 weeks prior to surgery. GCT specimens were collected at the time of biopsy and during definitive surgery. TUNEL assay was used to evaluate apoptotic DNA fragmentation in cells. In addition, twelve GCT primary cultures from these patients were treated with zoledronate, pamidronate, or alendronate for 48 hours at different doses (3, 30, or 150 μM) and subjected to apoptosis assay by flow cytometry following fluorescent Annexin-V labeling. The results showed that pamidronate significantly induced apoptosis in both osteoclast-like giant cells and stromal tumor cells, in vivo. All three bisphosphonates caused substantial apoptosis of stromal tumor cells in cultures. Zoledronate was the most potent reagent, resulting in an average cell death of 27.41% at 150 μM, followed by pamidronate (22.23%) and alendronate (15.3%). Our observations suggest that these drugs may be considered as potential adjuvants in the treatment of GCT.

105 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The involvement of three groups of cytokines which seem to be of particular importance in bone physiology are presented: interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor -alpha(TNF-α) (T NF-α)/IL-1, and the more recently known triad osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RankL).

783 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present article is an update and extension of an earlier review published by Kwan Tat et al. of IL-6, RANKL, TNF-alpha/IL-1: interrelations in bone resorption pathophysiology, which opens novel therapeutic areas in diseases characterized by excessive bone Resorption.

589 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest a model for understanding the pathogenesis of aggressive bone erosions in PsA, where OCPs arise from TNF-alpha-activated PBMCs that migrate to the inflamed synovium and subchondral bone, where they are exposed to unopposed RANKL and T NF-alpha.
Abstract: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory joint disease characterized by extensive bone resorption. The mechanisms underlying this matrix loss have not been elucidated. We report here that blood samples from PsA patients, particularly those with bone erosions visible on plain radiographs, exhibit a marked increase in osteoclast precursors (OCPs) compared with those from healthy controls. Moreover, PsA PBMCs readily formed osteoclasts in vitro without exogenous receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) or MCSF. Both osteoprotegerin (OPG) and anti-TNF antibodies inhibited osteoclast formation. Additionally, cultured PsA PBMCs spontaneously secreted higher levels of TNF-alpha than did healthy controls. In vivo, OCP frequency declined substantially in PsA patients following treatment with anti-TNF agents. Immunohistochemical analysis of subchondral bone and synovium revealed RANK-positive perivascular mononuclear cells and osteoclasts in PsA specimens. RANKL expression was dramatically upregulated in the synovial lining layer, while OPG immunostaining was restricted to the endothelium. These results suggest a model for understanding the pathogenesis of aggressive bone erosions in PsA. OCPs arise from TNF-alpha-activated PBMCs that migrate to the inflamed synovium and subchondral bone, where they are exposed to unopposed RANKL and TNF-alpha. This leads to osteoclastogenesis at the erosion front and in subchondral bone, resulting in a bidirectional assault on psoriatic bone.

581 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the potential therapeutic effect of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, on tumour-cell survival and growth in patients with GCT was investigated.
Abstract: Summary Background Giant-cell tumour (GCT) of bone is a primary osteolytic bone tumour with low metastatic potential and is associated with substantial skeletal morbidity. GCT is rich in osteoclast-like giant cells and contains mononuclear (stromal) cells that express RANK ligand (RANKL), a key mediator of osteoclast activation. We investigated the potential therapeutic effect of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, on tumour-cell survival and growth in patients with GCT. Methods In this open-label, single-group study, 37 patients with recurrent or unresectable GCT were enrolled and received subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg monthly (every 28 days), with loading doses on days 8 and 15 of month 1. The primary endpoint was tumour response, defined as elimination of at least 90% of giant cells or no radiological progression of the target lesion up to week 25. Study recruitment is closed; patient treatment and follow-up are ongoing. The study is registered with Clinical Trials.gov, NCT00396279. Findings Two patients had insufficient histology or radiology data for efficacy assessment. 30 of 35 (86%; 95% CI 70–95) of evaluable patients had a tumour response: 20 of 20 assessed by histology and 10 of 15 assessed by radiology. Adverse events were reported in 33 of 37 patients; the most common being pain in an extremity (n=7), back pain (n=4), and headache (n=4). Five patients had grade 3–5 adverse events, only one of which (grade 3 increase in human chorionic gonadotropin concentration not related to pregnancy) was deemed to be possibly treatment related. Five serious adverse events were reported although none were deemed treatment related. Interpretation Further investigation of denosumab as a therapy for GCT is warranted. Funding Amgen, Inc.

575 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The discovery and characterization of RANKL, RANK, and OPG and subsequent studies have changed the concepts of bone and calcium metabolism, have led to a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of metabolic bone diseases, and may form the basis of innovative therapeutic strategies.
Abstract: Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL), its cellular receptor, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), and the decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) constitute a novel cytokine system. RANKL produced by osteoblastic lineage cells and activated T lymphocytes is the essential factor for osteoclast formation, fusion, activation, and survival, thus resulting in bone resorption and bone loss. RANKL activates its specific receptor, RANK located on osteoclasts and dendritic cells, and its signaling cascade involves stimulation of the c-jun, NF-κB, and serine/threonine kinase PKB/Akt pathways. The effects of RANKL are counteracted by OPG which acts as a soluble neutralizing receptor. RANKL and OPG are regulated by various hormones (glucocorticoids, vitamin D, estrogen), cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 1, 4, 6, 11, and 17), and various mesenchymal transcription factors (such as cbfa-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and Indian hedgehog). Transgenic and knock-out mice with excessive or defective production of RANKL, RANK, and OPG display the extremes of skeletal phenotypes, osteoporosis and osteopetrosis. Abnormalities of the RANKL/OPG system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Paget’s disease, periodontal disease, benign and malignant bone tumors, bone metastases, and hypercalcemia of malignancy, while administration of OPG has been demonstrated to prevent or mitigate these disorders in animal models. RANKL and OPG are also important regulators of vascular biology and calcification and of the development of a lactating mammary gland during pregnancy, indicating a crucial role for this system in extraskeletal calcium handling. The discovery and characterization of RANKL, RANK, and OPG and subsequent studies have changed the concepts of bone and calcium metabolism, have led to a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of metabolic bone diseases, and may form the basis of innovative therapeutic strategies.

572 citations