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Lindsay Smith

Bio: Lindsay Smith is an academic researcher from George Mason University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Recidivism & Medicine. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 4 publications receiving 7 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Whether there is a theoretically sound classification system or if the field would be better off creating levels of care scaffolding based on the risk-need profile clusters is the question that emerges.

14 citations

Book ChapterDOI
10 Nov 2020
TL;DR: Petersilia et al. as mentioned in this paper used intensive supervision programming (ISP) to provide enhanced surveillance of individuals under probation/parole supervision, and found that it was possible to intensify supervision over standard probation models, but the enhanced conditions did not have an impact on recidivism.
Abstract: Intensive supervision programming (ISP) was designed to provide enhanced surveillance of individuals under probation/parole supervision. The “incarceration without walls” model involved stacking on conditions to stiffen the requirements to be successful on supervision. The intensive supervision model was studied in one of the first randomized controlled trials in community corrections settings. This 14-site study was conducted by Drs. Joan Petersilia and Susan Turner, and this study set the stage for future experiments in correctional settings. The study demonstrated that it was possible to intensify supervision over standard probation models, but the enhanced conditions did not have an impact on recidivism. The ISP model did increase the technical violation rates. The ISP model created a version of mean probation, known for being demanding and making probation/parole supervision unpredictable and likely to result in reincarceration. The ISP experiment generated interest in relationship-based supervision where there is rapport based on caring and trust between the officer and the supervisee. Many different training models emerged to transform probation and parole services from a surveillance-based framework to an enhanced ability to create a social learning environment. Pilot studies testing the impact of a relationship-based supervision model show great promise including an impact of reducing recidivism. This paper outlines the issues related to improve the culture of probation and parole organizations to provide for a meaningful probation experience. Transformative changes are needed to advance probation/parole organizations from a surveillance (compliance) model of supervision to a relationship-based supervision model.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The deprived nature of restricted housing units (RHUs) leaves residents fraught with an innumerable amount of strain this paper, coupled with a problematic grievance system, the social structure of RHUs can p...
Abstract: The deprived nature of restricted housing units (RHUs) leaves residents fraught with an innumerable amount of strain. Coupled with a problematic grievance system, the social structure of RHUs can p...

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a survey of Problem-Solving Courts (PSCs) found that MAT availability at the county level was a significant predictor of the likelihood of local courts authorizing MAT.
Abstract: Problem-solving courts (PSCs) are a critical part of a societal effort to mitigate the opioid epidemic's devastating consequences. This paper reports on a national survey of PSCs (N = 42 state-wide court coordinators; N = 849 local court coordinators) and examines the structural factors that could explain the likelihood of a local PSC authorizing medication-assisted treatment (MAT) and MAT utilization. Results of the analyses indicate that MAT availability at the county level was a significant predictor of the likelihood of local courts authorizing MAT. The court's location in a Medicaid expansion state was also a significant predictor of local courts allowing buprenorphine and methadone, but not naltrexone. Problem-solving courts are in the early stages of supporting the use of medications, even when funding is available through Medicaid expansion policies. Adoption and use of treatment innovations like MAT are affected by coordinators' perceptions of MAT as well as structural factors such as the availability of the medications in the community and funding resources. The study has important implications for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , N.nan et al. presented a method to solve the problem of homonymity.http://www.nannan.edu.edu/blog/blogs/

Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that probation personnel were open to changes in operational procedures and that the COVID-19 global pandemic spurred innovation and widespread acceptance in the use of technology for a variety of activities going forward that may not have been accepted prior to the pandemic.
Abstract: In 2020, the COVID-19 global pandemic forced probation departments to change their practices overnight. The phenomenon presented many challenges for probation departments but also opened avenues for innovation and changes in attitudes toward supervision practices. We surveyed adult and juvenile probation departments in the entire state of Texas, specifically targeting management and supervisory personnel, officers with caseloads, including court officers, and information technology personnel (N?=?1,353). Our goals of this research included not only obtaining information about operational changes made because of the pandemic but also gauging attitudes toward these changes and the future of probation. We understood operational changes were inevitable, thus findings of significant operational changes were not surprising. We found that probation personnel were open to changes in operational procedures and that the pandemic spurred innovation and widespread acceptance in the use of technology for a variety of activities going forward that may not have been accepted prior to the pandemic.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The impact of a policy, implemented post-training, designed to encourage trained officers to use skills emphasized by the Staff Training Aimed at Reducing Rearrest (STARR) training program more frequently was examined, suggesting the policy mandate was effective in increasing skill use.
Abstract: Community supervision officer training programs aim to translate core correctional practices into routine practice. These training programs emphasize skill-building designed to shift supervision strategies from law enforcement/compliance-oriented to a focus on promoting and supporting behavior change. Despite evidence of their effectiveness, research finds trained officers use newly learned skills infrequently. The current study examined the impact of a policy, implemented post-training, designed to encourage trained officers to use skills emphasized by the Staff Training Aimed at Reducing Rearrest (STARR) training program more frequently. The current study examined the effectiveness of this policy on the frequency and type of skills used by officers in their interactions with individuals on their caseload. Analyses suggested the policy mandate was effective in increasing skill use, however officers still used trained skills in less than half of their interactions. Implications and considerations for increasing the use of skills are discussed.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the results of a CBT among supervised offenders in Honduras and found that subjects who participated in the CBT program were 69% less likely to reoffend at any compared with those assigned to the control group.
Abstract: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has shown promise as a tool for rehabilitating offenders in the USA and other developed nations. However, little is known about the effectiveness of CBT outside the developed world. In Central America, a region wracked by rampant violence and disorder, CBT has the potential to change the behavior of persistent offenders and improve public safety. The present study examines the results of a CBT among supervised offenders in Honduras. Randomized control trial, where one hundred parolees were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n = 50) or control conditions (n = 50) group and tracked for 14 months. Subjects who participated in the CBT program were 69% less likely to reoffend at any compared with those assigned to the control group. Despite social, economic obstacles, CBT proved to be effective in reducing recidivism among parolees in Honduras—a testament to its robustness and wide applicability.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present results from an effort to construct community supervision practice guidelines by integrating scientific research and clinical expertise from supervision stakeholders (officers and individuals involved in the criminal legal system).

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors examined the program and individual-level factors that impact the success of drug court clients in terms of: (1) graduation; and (2) not being arrested while participating in the court program.
Abstract: This study examines the program- and individual-level factors that impact the success of drug court clients in terms of: (1) graduation; and (2) not being arrested while participating in the court program. The data consist of 848 individuals in nine drug courts. This paper discusses how different individual- and program-level factors impact the success of drug court participants. The findings suggest that individual- and program-level factors are both important in predicting program graduation and arrest during drug court participation, while controlling for participant demographics. Clients' education, drug/alcohol usage, program staffing, and clinical standards impact program graduation while criminal history, drug/alcohol usage, number of program hours offered, program staffing, and use of rewards and sanctions predict in-program arrest. Models combining both program- and individual-level factors performed better than either alone, leading to recommendations that agencies should emphasize improving program quality while targeting clients' needs to achieve greater success.

2 citations