Author

# Lionel L. Levy

Bio: Lionel L. Levy is an academic researcher from Ames Research Center. The author has contributed to research in topics: Transonic & Airfoil. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 17 publications receiving 632 citations.

Topics: Transonic, Airfoil, Reynolds number, Turbulence, Mach number

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental and theoretical study of transonic flow over a thick airfoil, prompted by a need for adequately documented experiments that could provide rigorous verification of viscous flow simulation computer codes, is reported.

Abstract: An experimental and theoretical study of transonic flow over a thick airfoil, prompted by a need for adequately documented experiments that could provide rigorous verification of viscous flow simulation computer codes, is reported. Special attention is given to the shock-induced separation phenomenon in the turbulent regime. Measurements presented include surface pressures, streamline and flow separation patterns, and shadowgraphs. For a limited range of free-stream Mach numbers the airfoil flow field is found to be unsteady. Dynamic pressure measurements and high-speed shadowgraph movies were taken to investigate this phenomenon. Comparisons of experimentally determined and numerically simulated steady flows using a new viscous-turbulent code are also included. The comparisons show the importance of including an accurate turbulence model. When the shock-boundary layer interaction is weak the turbulence model employed appears adequate, but when the interaction is strong, and extensive regions of separation are present, the model is inadequate and needs further development.

189 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental and computational investigation of the steady and unsteady transonic flowfields about a thick airfoil is described, and an operational computer code for solving the two-dimensional, compressible NavierStokes equations for flow over airfoils was modified to include solid-wall, slip-flow boundary conditions to properly assess the code and help guide the development of improved turbulence models.

Abstract: An experimental and computational investigation of the steady and unsteady transonic flowfields about a thick airfoil is described. An operational computer code for solving the two-dimensional, compressible NavierStokes equations for flow over airfoils was modified to include solid-wall, slip-flow boundary conditions to properly assess the code and help guide the development of improved turbulence models. Steady and unsteady fiowfieids about an 18% thick circular arc airfoil at Mach numbers of 0.720, 0.754, and 0.783 and a chord Reynolds number of 11 x 10 are predicted and compared with experiment. Results from comparisons with experimental pressure and skin-friction distributions show improved agreement when including test-section wall boundaries in the computations. Steady-flow results were in good quantitative agreement with experimental data for flow conditions which result in relatively small regions of separated flow. For flows with larger regions of separated flow, improvements in turbulence modeling are required before good agreement with experiment will be obtained. For the first time, computed results for unsteady turbulent flows with separation caused by a shock wave were obtained which qualitatively reproduce the time-dependent aspects of experiments. Features such as the intensity and reduced frequency of airfoil surface-pressure fluctuations, oscillatory regions of trailing-edge and shock-induced separation, and the Mach number range for unsteady flows were all qualitatively reproduced.

152 citations

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01 Jan 1978TL;DR: In this article, an investigation of the transonic flow over a circular arc airfoil was conducted to obtain basic information for turbulence modeling of shock-induced separated flows and to verify numerical computer codes which are being developed to simulate such flows.

Abstract: An investigation of the transonic flow over a circular arc airfoil was conducted to obtain basic information for turbulence modeling of shock-induced separated flows and to verify numerical computer codes which are being developed to simulate such flows. The investigation included the employment of a laser velocimeter to obtain data concerning the mean velocity, the shear stress, and the turbulent kinetic energy profiles in the flowfield downstream of the airfoil midchord where the flow features are more complex. Depending on the free-stream Mach number, the flowfield developed was either steady with shock-wave-induced separation extending from the foot of the shock wave to beyond the trailing edge or unsteady with a periodic motion also undergoing shock-induced separation. The experimental data were compared with the results of numerical simulations in which a computer code was employed that solved the time-dependent Reynolds' averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

104 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an investigation of the transonic flow over a circular arc airfoil was conducted to obtain basic information for turbulence modeling of shock-induced separated flows and to verify numerical computer codes which are being developed to simulate such flows.

Abstract: An investigation of the transonic flow over a circular arc airfoil was conducted to obtain basic information for turbulence modeling of shock-induced separated flows and to verify numerical computer codes which are being developed to simulate such flows. The investigation included the employment of a laser velocimeter to obtain data concerning the mean velocity, the shear stress, and the turbulent kinetic energy profiles in the flowfield downstream of the airfoil midchord where the flow features are more complex. Depending on the free-stream Mach number, the flowfield developed was either steady with shock-wave-induced separation extending from the foot of the shock wave to beyond the trailing edge or unsteady with a periodic motion also undergoing shock-induced separation. The experimental data were compared with the results of numerical simulations in which a computer code was employed that solved the time-dependent Reynolds' averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

77 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a series of compression waves, which develop in the early stages of the flow, strengthen and coalesce into a strong shock wave that moves toward the airfoil leading edge.

Abstract: Conditionally sampled, ensemble-averaged velocity measurements, made with a laser velocimeter, were taken in the flowfield over the rear half of an 18% thick circular arc airfoil at zero incidence tested at M = 0.76 and at a Reynolds number based on chord of 11 x 10(exp 6). Data for one cycle of periodic unsteady flow having a reduced frequency f of 0.49 are analyzed. A series of compression waves, which develop in the early stages of the cycle, strengthen and coalesce into a strong shock wave that moves toward the airfoil leading edge. A thick shear layer forms downstream of the shock wave. The kinetic energy and shear stresses increase dramatically, reach a maximum when dissipation and diffusion of the turbulence exceed production, and then decrease substantially. The response lime of the turbulence to the changes brought about by the shock-wave passage upstream depends on the shock-wave strength and position in the boundary layer. The cycle completes itself when the shock wave passes the midchord, weakens, and the shear layer collapses. Remarkably good comparisons are found with computations that employ the time-dependent Reynolds averaged form of the Navier-Stokes equations using an algebraic eddy viscosity model, developed for steady flows.

29 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an automatic grid generation program is employed, and because an implicit finite-difference algorithm for the flow equations is used, time steps are not severely limited when grid points are finely distributed.

Abstract: Finite-difference procedures are used to solve either the Euler equations or the "thin-layer" Navier-Stokes equations subject to arbitrary boundary conditions. An automatic grid generation program is employed, and because an implicit finite-difference algorithm for the flow equations is used, time steps are not severely limited when grid points are finely distributed. Computational efficiency and compatibility to vectorized computer processors is maintained by use of approximate factorization techniques. Computed results for both inviscid and viscous flow about airfoils are described and compared to viscous known solutions.

691 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the fundamental properties of the interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer is presented, with emphasis on the physics of phenomena involved in this process.

377 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a review of the physical mechanisms of the periodic shock motion on airfoils at transonic flow conditions are associated with the phenomenon of buffeting, and various modes of shock wave motion for different flow conditions and airfoil configurations are described.

333 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a new experiment executed in the ONERA S3Ch transonic wind tunnel on shock oscillations over the OAT15A supercritical profile, which has allowed the precise definition of the conditions for buffet onset and the characterization of the properties of the periodic motion from unsteady surface pressure measurements.

Abstract: Shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction and flow separation may induce self-sustained large-scale oscillations on a profile at transonic Mach number. This phenomenon, known as transonic buffet, is at the origin of intense pressure fluctuations which can have detrimental effects, both in external and internal aerodynamics. The present paper describes a new experiment executed in the ONERA S3Ch transonic wind tunnel on shock oscillations over the OAT15A supercritical profile. These experiments have allowed the precise definition of the conditions for buffet onset and the characterization of the properties of the periodic motion from unsteady surface pressure measurements. The flowfield behavior has been described in great detail thanks to high-speed schlieren cinematography and surveys with a two-component laser Doppler velocimetry along with a conditional sampling technique. The first aim of this study was to provide the computational fluid dynamics community with well-documented test cases to validate advanced computing methods. Concerning the physics of the phenomenon, it is suggested that it is mediated by acoustic waves which are produced at the trailing edge and which travel on the two sides of the airfoil. Also, the experimental results strongly suggest that the phenomenon is essentially two-dimensional, even if three-dimensional effects are also detected.

235 citations

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TL;DR: The current strengths and limitations of CFD are shown and a way of enhancing the usefulness of flow simulation for industrial class problems is suggested.

190 citations