Other affiliations: Ministry of Health (Ghana)
Bio: Livesy Abokyi is an academic researcher from The Joanna Briggs Institute. The author has contributed to research in topics: Malaria & Population. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 17 publications receiving 235 citations. Previous affiliations of Livesy Abokyi include Ministry of Health (Ghana).
TL;DR: Personal concentrations of PM2.5 exhibited considerable inter-subject variability across kitchen types, and can be elevated even in outdoor cooking settings, underscoring the need to explore other sources of incomplete combustion such as roadway emissions, charcoal production and kerosene use.
Abstract: Objective To examine cooking practices and 24-h personal and kitchen area exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon in cooks using biomass in Ghana.
TL;DR: The knowledge of fever as a symptom of malaria is high among the study population and the awareness of AS-AQ therapy and its side-effect was low in the study area, while community education and sensitization has to be intensified to ensure an efficient implementation process.
Abstract: Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) was introduced in Ghana as the first line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in 2004. We report the perceptions of malaria and malaria treatment behaviour, the community awareness of and perceptions about AS-AQ two years after the introduction of this ACT treatment for malaria. Two surveys were conducted; a cross-sectional survey of 729 randomly selected household heads (urban-362, rural-367) and 282 women with children 75%) in the sampled survey mentioned mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. Other causes mentioned include environmental factors (e.g. dirty surroundings) and standing in the sun. Close to 60% of the household heads and 40% of the care-givers interviewed did not know about AS-AQ. The community respondents who knew about and had ever taken AS-AQ perceived it to be a good drug; although they mentioned they had experienced some side effects including headaches and body weakness. Co-blistered AS-AQ was available in all the government health facilities in the study area. Different formulations of ACTs were however found in urban chemical shops but not in rural chemical stores where monotherapy antimalarials were predominant. The knowledge of fever as a symptom of malaria is high among the study population. The awareness of AS-AQ therapy and its side-effect was low in the study area. Community education and sensitization, targeting all categories of the population, has to be intensified to ensure an efficient implementation process.
TL;DR: Fingerprint identification should be combined with other methods to be feasible in identifying community members in African rural settings and can be enhanced in communities with some basic Demographic Surveillance System or census information.
Abstract: Background : The reliability of counts for estimating population dynamics and disease burdens in communities depends on the availability of a common unique identifier for matching general population data with health facility data. Biometric data has been explored as a feasible common identifier between the health data and sociocultural data of resident members in rural communities within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System located in the central part of Ghana. Objective : Our goal was to assess the feasibility of using fingerprint identification to link community data and hospital data in a rural African setting. Design : A combination of biometrics and other personal identification techniques were used to identify individual’s resident within a surveillance population seeking care in two district hospitals. Visits from resident individuals were successfully recorded and categorized by the success of the techniques applied during identification. The successes of visits that involved identification by fingerprint were further examined by age. Results : A total of 27,662 hospital visits were linked to resident individuals. Over 85% of those visits were successfully identified using at least one identification method. Over 65% were successfully identified and linked using their fingerprints. Supervisory support from the hospital administration was critical in integrating this identification system into its routine activities. No concerns were expressed by community members about the fingerprint registration and identification processes. Conclusions : Fingerprint identification should be combined with other methods to be feasible in identifying community members in African rural settings. This can be enhanced in communities with some basic Demographic Surveillance System or census information. Keywords: biometrics; fingerprint; identification; techniques; electronic; database; data-linkage (Published: 17 March 2016) Citation: Glob Health Action 2016, 9 : 29854 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v9.29854
TL;DR: Though the use of RDT for diagnosis of malaria might have improved the quality of care for children, it appeared not to have a cost saving effect on the management of children with suspected malaria.
Abstract: Background This study was conducted at the Kintampo Municipal Hospital in Ghana to determine whether there was any benefit (or otherwise) in basing the management of cases of suspected malaria solely on laboratory confirmation (microscopy or by RDT) as compared with presumptive diagnosis.
TL;DR: The total cost of treating fever/malaria episode is relatively high in the study area considering the poverty levels in Ghana, and the NHIS has positively influenced health-seeking behaviours and reduced the financial burden of seeking care for those that are insured.
Abstract: Background Malaria is one of the main health problems in the sub-Saharan Africa accounting for approximately 198 million morbidity and close to 600,000 mortality cases. Households incur out-of-pocket expenditure for treatment and lose income as a result of not being able to work or care for family members. The main objective of this survey was to assess the economic cost of treating malaria and/or fever with the new ACT to households in the Kintampo districts of Ghana where a health and demographic surveillance systems (KHDSS) are set up to document population dynamics.
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai1, Pure Earth2, World Bank3, University of Arizona4, McGill University5, Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests6, Qatar Airways7, University of Health Sciences Antigua8, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich9, Johns Hopkins University10, Boston College11, Chulabhorn Research Institute12, University of Maryland, College Park13, University of Ghana14, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares15, University of Chicago16, University of London17, University of Oxford18, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi19, Simon Fraser University20, Consortium of Universities for Global Health21, University of Ottawa22, Columbia University23, Stockholm Resilience Centre24, Massachusetts Institute of Technology25, University of Queensland26, University of California, Berkeley27, New York University28, National Institutes of Health29, Public Health Research Institute30, United Nations Industrial Development Organization31, Renmin University of China32
TL;DR: This book is dedicated to the memory of those who have served in the armed forces and their families during the conflicts of the twentieth century.
Abstract: Philip J Landrigan, Richard Fuller, Nereus J R Acosta, Olusoji Adeyi, Robert Arnold, Niladri (Nil) Basu, Abdoulaye Bibi Baldé, Roberto Bertollini, Stephan Bose-O’Reilly, Jo Ivey Boufford, Patrick N Breysse, Thomas Chiles, Chulabhorn Mahidol, Awa M Coll-Seck, Maureen L Cropper, Julius Fobil, Valentin Fuster, Michael Greenstone, Andy Haines, David Hanrahan, David Hunter, Mukesh Khare, Alan Krupnick, Bruce Lanphear, Bindu Lohani, Keith Martin, Karen V Mathiasen, Maureen A McTeer, Christopher J L Murray, Johanita D Ndahimananjara, Frederica Perera, Janez Potočnik, Alexander S Preker, Jairam Ramesh, Johan Rockström, Carlos Salinas, Leona D Samson, Karti Sandilya, Peter D Sly, Kirk R Smith, Achim Steiner, Richard B Stewart, William A Suk, Onno C P van Schayck, Gautam N Yadama, Kandeh Yumkella, Ma Zhong
TL;DR: Mixed effect models indicated that fuel type, ventilation, number of windows, season, and burning time per stove were the main factors related to personal PM2.5 exposure.
Abstract: The combustion of biomass and coal is the dominant source of household air pollution (HAP) in China, and contributes significantly to the total burden of disease in the Chinese population. To characterize HAP exposure related to solid fuel use and ventilation patterns, an exposure assessment study of 163 nonsmoking female heads of households enrolled from 30 villages was conducted in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, two neighboring rural counties with high incidence of lung cancer due to the burning of smoky coal (a bituminous coal, which in health evaluations is usually compared to smokeless coal—an anthracite coal available in some parts of the area). Personal and indoor 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected over two consecutive days in each household, with approximately one-third of measurements retaken in a second season. The overall geometric means (GM) of personal PM2.5 concentrations in Xuanwei and Fuyuan were 166 [Geometric Standard Deviation (GSD):2.0] and 146 (GSD:1.9) μg/m3, respectively, which were similar to ...
TL;DR: The nascent pipeline of new medicines is significantly stronger than five years ago, however, there are still risks ahead in clinical development and sustainable funding of clinical studies is vital if this early promise is going to be delivered.
Abstract: Over the past decade, there has been a transformation in the portfolio of medicines to combat malaria. New fixed-dose artemisinin combination therapy is available, with four different types having received approval from Stringent Regulatory Authorities or the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is still scope for improvement. The Malaria Eradication Research agenda identified several gaps in the current portfolio. Simpler regimens, such as a single-dose cure are needed, compared with the current three-day treatment. In addition, new medicines that prevent transmission and also relapse are needed, but with better safety profiles than current medicines. There is also a big opportunity for new medicines to prevent reinfection and to provide chemoprotection. This study reviews the global portfolio of new medicines in development against malaria, as of the summer of 2012. Cell-based phenotypic screening, and ‘fast followers’ of clinically validated classes, mean that there are now many new classes of molecules starting in clinical development, especially for the blood stages of malaria. There remain significant gaps for medicines blocking transmission, preventing relapse, and long-duration molecules for chemoprotection. The nascent pipeline of new medicines is significantly stronger than five years ago. However, there are still risks ahead in clinical development and sustainable funding of clinical studies is vital if this early promise is going to be delivered.
TL;DR: Brief campaigns to quantify the effect of trees on the dispersion of airborne particulates using high time resolution measurements along short transects away from roads are described, indicating recirculation, longer residence times and decreased dispersion downwind of trees.
Abstract: Many reports of trees' impacts on urban air quality neglect pattern and process at the landscape scale. Here, we describe brief campaigns to quantify the effect of trees on the dispersion of airborne particulates using high time resolution measurements along short transects away from roads. Campaigns near major highways in Queens, NY showed frequent, stochastic spikes in PM2.5. The polydisperse PM2.5 class poorly represented the behavior of discrete classes. A transect across a lawn with trees had fewer spikes in PM2.5 concentration but decreased more gradually than a transect crossing a treeless lawn. This coincided with decreased Turbulence Kinetic Energy downwind of trees, indicating recirculation, longer residence times and decreased dispersion. Simply planting trees can increase local pollution concentrations, which is a special concern if the intent is to protect vulnerable populations. Emphasizing deposition to leaf surfaces obscures the dominant impact of aerodynamics on local concentration.
01 Jul 1996
TL;DR: The World Health organization (WHO), established in 1948, is the United Nations system's authority on international public health issues and assists governments in improving national health services and in establishing worldwide standards for foods, chemicals, and biological and pharmaceutical products.
Abstract: The World Health organization (WHO), established in 1948, is the United Nations system's authority on international public health issues. It assists governments in improving national health services and in establishing worldwide standards for foods, chemicals, and biological and pharmaceutical products. WHO concentrates on preventive rather than curative programs, including efforts to eradicate endemic and other widespread diseases, stabilize population growth, improve nutrition, sanitation, and maternal and child care. WHO is not an operational agency. It works through contracts with other agencies and private voluntary organizations.