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Lloyd A. Dunlap

Bio: Lloyd A. Dunlap is an academic researcher. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 4 publications receiving 716 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new technique is introduced for constructing hash signatures by combining a number of traditional hashes whose boundaries are determined by the context of the input to identify modified versions of known files even if data has been inserted, modified, or deleted in the new files.

482 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Theoretical and descriptive studies of the Supreme Court exhibit a curious parallel. as mentioned in this paper argues that independent judicial policymaking is rarely legitimate in a democracy because, with few exceptions, elected officials rather than appointed judges should resolve social controversies.
Abstract: Theoretical and descriptive studies of the Supreme Court exhibit a curious parallel. Both usually begin from the premise that judicial review is “a deviant institution in a democratic society.” Much normative work claims that independent judicial policymaking is rarely legitimate in a democracy because, with few exceptions, elected officials rather than appointed judges should resolve social controversies. In a frequently cited passage, Alexander Bickel asserts that the Supreme Court is “a counter-majoritarian force” in our system of government. Much empirical work, by comparison, insists that independent judicial policymaking seldom takes place in a democracy because, with few exceptions, judges appointed and confirmed by elected officials sustain whatever social policies are enacted by the dominant national coalition. Robert Dahl observes that it is “unrealistic to suppose that a Court whose members are recruited in the fashion of Supreme Court justices would long hold to norms of Right or Justice substantially at odds with the rest of the political elite.”

285 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown for the first time that continuously spoken speech can be decoded into the expressed words from intracranial electrocorticographic recordings, and this approach contributes to the current understanding of the neural basis of continuous speech production by identifying those cortical regions that hold substantial information about individual phones.
Abstract: It has long been speculated whether communication between humans and machines based on natural speech related cortical activity is possible. Over the past decade, studies have suggested that it is feasible to recognize isolated aspects of speech from neural signals, such as auditory features, phones or one of a few isolated words. However, until now it remained an unsolved challenge to decode continuously spoken speech from the neural substrate associated with speech and language processing. Here, we show for the first time that continuously spoken speech can be decoded into the expressed words from intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings.Specifically, we implemented a system, which we call Brain-To-Text that models single phones, employs techniques from automatic speech recognition (ASR), and thereby transforms brain activity while speaking into the corresponding textual representation. Our results demonstrate that our system can achieve word error rates as low as 25% and phone error rates below 50%. Additionally, our approach contributes to the current understanding of the neural basis of continuous speech production by identifying those cortical regions that hold substantial information about individual phones. In conclusion, the Brain-To-Text system described in this paper represents an important step toward human-machine communication based on imagined speech.

228 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For example, the George W. Bush administration's prosecution of both the war on terrorism and its overall grand strategy, in which it is assumed that U.S. political and security interests are advanced by the spread of liberal political institutions and values abroad, has been characterized as democratic realism, national security liberalism, democratic globalism, andmessianic universalism.
Abstract: mocracy is central to the George W. Bush administration’s prosecution of both the war on terrorism and its overall grand strategy, in which it is assumed that U.S. political and security interests are advanced by the spread of liberal political institutions and values abroad. In an approach variously characterized as “democratic realism,” “national security liberalism,” “democratic globalism,” and “messianic universalism,” the Bush administration’s national security policy has centered on the direct application of U.S. military and political power to promote democracy in strategic areas. In a summer 2004 interview, Bush expressed his “deep desire to spread liberty around the world as a way to help secure [the United States] in the long-run.”1 According to Bush, “As in Europe, as in Asia, as in every region of the world, the advance of freedom leads to peace.”2 This generic statement of cause and effect is also applied speciacally to terrorism: “democracy and reform will make [Middle Eastern states] stronger and more stable, and make the world more secure by undermining terrorism at its source.”3 More broadly, the Bush administration proposes a liberal international order grounded in U.S. military and political power; as its 2002 National Security Strategy (NSS) contends, the unparalleled U.S. position of primacy creates a “moment of opportunity to extend the beneats of freedom across the globe . . . [the United States] will actively work to bring the hope of democracy, development, free markets, and free trade to every corner of the world.” This view appears to be contingent on the belief that U.S. power is “the sole pillar upholding a liberal world order that is conducive to the principles [the United States] believes in.”4 The Roots of the Bush Doctrine

205 citations

Book
01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: Armitage as mentioned in this paper examines the Declaration of Independence as a political, legal, and intellectual document, and is the first to treat it entirely within a broad international framework, showing how the Declaration arose within a global moment in the late 18th Century similar to our own.
Abstract: In a stunningly original look at the American Declaration of Independence, David Armitage reveals the document in a new light: through the eyes of the rest of the world. Not only did the Declaration announce the entry of the United States onto the world stage, it became the model for other countries to follow. Armitage examines the Declaration as a political, legal, and intellectual document, and is the first to treat it entirely within a broad international framework. He shows how the Declaration arose within a global moment in the late 18th Century similar to our own. He uses over one hundred declarations of independence written since 1776 to show the influence and role the U.S. Declaration has played in creating a world of states out of a world of empires. He discusses why the framers' language of natural rights did not resonate in Britain, how the document was interpreted in the rest of the world, whether the Declaration established a new nation or a collection of states, and where and how the Declaration has had an overt influence on independence movements - from Haiti to Vietnam, and from Venezuela to Rhodesia. Included is the text of the U.S. Declaration of Independence and sample declarations from around the world. An eye-opening list of declarations of independence since 1776 is compiled here for the first time. This unique global perspective demonstrates the singular role of the United States document as a founding statement of our modern world.

178 citations