Author

# Lotfi A. Zadeh

Other affiliations: University of California, RAND Corporation, Columbia University

Bio: Lotfi A. Zadeh is an academic researcher from University of California, Berkeley. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Fuzzy logic & Fuzzy set operations. The author has an hindex of 104, co-authored 331 publication(s) receiving 148857 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Lotfi A. Zadeh include University of California & RAND Corporation.

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Topics: Fuzzy logic, Fuzzy set operations, Fuzzy classification ...read more

##### Papers

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01 Aug 1996-

TL;DR: A separation theorem for convex fuzzy sets is proved without requiring that the fuzzy sets be disjoint.

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Abstract: A fuzzy set is a class of objects with a continuum of grades of membership. Such a set is characterized by a membership (characteristic) function which assigns to each object a grade of membership ranging between zero and one. The notions of inclusion, union, intersection, complement, relation, convexity, etc., are extended to such sets, and various properties of these notions in the context of fuzzy sets are established. In particular, a separation theorem for convex fuzzy sets is proved without requiring that the fuzzy sets be disjoint.

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50,974 citations

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TL;DR: Much of what constitutes the core of scientific knowledge may be regarded as a reservoir of concepts and techniques which can be drawn upon to construct mathematical models of various types of systems and thereby yield quantitative information concerning their behavior.

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Abstract: One of the fundamental tenets of modern science is that a phenomenon cannot be claimed to be well understood until it can be characterized in quantitative terms.l Viewed in this perspective, much of what constitutes the core of scientific knowledge may be regarded as a reservoir of concepts and techniques which can be drawn upon to construct mathematical models of various types of systems and thereby yield quantitative information concerning their behavior.

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12,259 citations

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TL;DR: The theory of possibility described in this paper is related to the theory of fuzzy sets by defining the concept of a possibility distribution as a fuzzy restriction which acts as an elastic constraint on the values that may be assigned to a variable.

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Abstract: The theory of possibility described in this paper is related to the theory of fuzzy sets by defining the concept of a possibility distribution as a fuzzy restriction which acts as an elastic constraint on the values that may be assigned to a variable. More specifically, if F is a fuzzy subset of a universe of discourse U={u} which is characterized by its membership function μF, then a proposition of the form “X is F,” where X is a variable taking values in U, induces a possibility distribution ∏X which equates the possibility of X taking the value u to μF(u)—the compatibility of u with F. In this way, X becomes a fuzzy variable which is associated with the possibility distribution ∏x in much the same way as a random variable is associated with a probability distribution. In general, a variable may be associated both with a possibility distribution and a probability distribution, with the weak connection between the two expressed as the possibility/probability consistency principle. A thesis advanced in this paper is that the imprecision that is intrinsic in natural languages is, in the main, possibilistic rather than probabilistic in nature. Thus, by employing the concept of a possibility distribution, a proposition, p, in a natural language may be translated into a procedure which computes the probability distribution of a set of attributes which are implied by p. Several types of conditional translation rules are discussed and, in particular, a translation rule for propositions of the form “X is F is α-possible,” where α is a number in the interval [0, 1], is formulated and illustrated by examples.

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8,549 citations

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01 Jan 1973-

TL;DR: By relying on the use of linguistic variables and fuzzy algorithms, the approach provides an approximate and yet effective means of describing the behavior of systems which are too complex or too ill-defined to admit of precise mathematical analysis.

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Abstract: The approach described in this paper represents a substantive departure from the conventional quantitative techniques of system analysis. It has three main distinguishing features: 1) use of so-called ``linguistic'' variables in place of or in addition to numerical variables; 2) characterization of simple relations between variables by fuzzy conditional statements; and 3) characterization of complex relations by fuzzy algorithms. A linguistic variable is defined as a variable whose values are sentences in a natural or artificial language. Thus, if tall, not tall, very tall, very very tall, etc. are values of height, then height is a linguistic variable. Fuzzy conditional statements are expressions of the form IF A THEN B, where A and B have fuzzy meaning, e.g., IF x is small THEN y is large, where small and large are viewed as labels of fuzzy sets. A fuzzy algorithm is an ordered sequence of instructions which may contain fuzzy assignment and conditional statements, e.g., x = very small, IF x is small THEN Y is large. The execution of such instructions is governed by the compositional rule of inference and the rule of the preponderant alternative. By relying on the use of linguistic variables and fuzzy algorithms, the approach provides an approximate and yet effective means of describing the behavior of systems which are too complex or too ill-defined to admit of precise mathematical analysis.

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8,223 citations

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01 Jan 1970-

TL;DR: A reverse-flow technique is described for the solution of a functional equation arising in connection with a decision process in which the termination time is defined implicitly by the condition that the process stops when the system under control enters a specified set of states in its state space.

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Abstract: By decision-making in a fuzzy environment is meant a decision process in which the goals and/or the constraints, but not necessarily the system under control, are fuzzy in nature. This means that the goals and/or the constraints constitute classes of alternatives whose boundaries are not sharply defined.
An example of a fuzzy constraint is: “The cost of A should not be substantially higher than α,” where α is a specified constant. Similarly, an example of a fuzzy goal is: “x should be in the vicinity of x0,” where x0 is a constant. The italicized words are the sources of fuzziness in these examples.
Fuzzy goals and fuzzy constraints can be defined precisely as fuzzy sets in the space of alternatives. A fuzzy decision, then, may be viewed as an intersection of the given goals and constraints. A maximizing decision is defined as a point in the space of alternatives at which the membership function of a fuzzy decision attains its maximum value.
The use of these concepts is illustrated by examples involving multistage decision processes in which the system under control is either deterministic or stochastic. By using dynamic programming, the determination of a maximizing decision is reduced to the solution of a system of functional equations. A reverse-flow technique is described for the solution of a functional equation arising in connection with a decision process in which the termination time is defined implicitly by the condition that the process stops when the system under control enters a specified set of states in its state space.

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6,671 citations

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08 Sep 2000-

TL;DR: This book presents dozens of algorithms and implementation examples, all in pseudo-code and suitable for use in real-world, large-scale data mining projects, and provides a comprehensive, practical look at the concepts and techniques you need to get the most out of real business data.

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Abstract: The increasing volume of data in modern business and science calls for more complex and sophisticated tools. Although advances in data mining technology have made extensive data collection much easier, it's still always evolving and there is a constant need for new techniques and tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge. Since the previous edition's publication, great advances have been made in the field of data mining. Not only does the third of edition of Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques continue the tradition of equipping you with an understanding and application of the theory and practice of discovering patterns hidden in large data sets, it also focuses on new, important topics in the field: data warehouses and data cube technology, mining stream, mining social networks, and mining spatial, multimedia and other complex data. Each chapter is a stand-alone guide to a critical topic, presenting proven algorithms and sound implementations ready to be used directly or with strategic modification against live data. This is the resource you need if you want to apply today's most powerful data mining techniques to meet real business challenges. * Presents dozens of algorithms and implementation examples, all in pseudo-code and suitable for use in real-world, large-scale data mining projects. * Addresses advanced topics such as mining object-relational databases, spatial databases, multimedia databases, time-series databases, text databases, the World Wide Web, and applications in several fields. *Provides a comprehensive, practical look at the concepts and techniques you need to get the most out of real business data

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23,590 citations

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22,129 citations

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01 Nov 2008-

TL;DR: Numerical Optimization presents a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the most effective methods in continuous optimization, responding to the growing interest in optimization in engineering, science, and business by focusing on the methods that are best suited to practical problems.

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Abstract: Numerical Optimization presents a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the most effective methods in continuous optimization. It responds to the growing interest in optimization in engineering, science, and business by focusing on the methods that are best suited to practical problems. For this new edition the book has been thoroughly updated throughout. There are new chapters on nonlinear interior methods and derivative-free methods for optimization, both of which are used widely in practice and the focus of much current research. Because of the emphasis on practical methods, as well as the extensive illustrations and exercises, the book is accessible to a wide audience. It can be used as a graduate text in engineering, operations research, mathematics, computer science, and business. It also serves as a handbook for researchers and practitioners in the field. The authors have strived to produce a text that is pleasant to read, informative, and rigorous - one that reveals both the beautiful nature of the discipline and its practical side.

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17,225 citations

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01 Jan 1988-

Abstract: From the Publisher:
Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems is a complete andaccessible account of the theoretical foundations and computational methods that underlie plausible reasoning under uncertainty. The author provides a coherent explication of probability as a language for reasoning with partial belief and offers a unifying perspective on other AI approaches to uncertainty, such as the Dempster-Shafer formalism, truth maintenance systems, and nonmonotonic logic. The author distinguishes syntactic and semantic approaches to uncertaintyand offers techniques, based on belief networks, that provide a mechanism for making semantics-based systems operational. Specifically, network-propagation techniques serve as a mechanism for combining the theoretical coherence of probability theory with modern demands of reasoning-systems technology: modular declarative inputs, conceptually meaningful inferences, and parallel distributed computation. Application areas include diagnosis, forecasting, image interpretation, multi-sensor fusion, decision support systems, plan recognition, planning, speech recognitionin short, almost every task requiring that conclusions be drawn from uncertain clues and incomplete information.
Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems will be of special interest to scholars and researchers in AI, decision theory, statistics, logic, philosophy, cognitive psychology, and the management sciences. Professionals in the areas of knowledge-based systems, operations research, engineering, and statistics will find theoretical and computational tools of immediate practical use. The book can also be used as an excellent text for graduate-level courses in AI, operations research, or applied probability.

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15,149 citations

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31 Jul 1981-

TL;DR: Books, as a source that may involve the facts, opinion, literature, religion, and many others are the great friends to join with, becomes what you need to get.

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Abstract: New updated! The latest book from a very famous author finally comes out. Book of pattern recognition with fuzzy objective function algorithms, as an amazing reference becomes what you need to get. What's for is this book? Are you still thinking for what the book is? Well, this is what you probably will get. You should have made proper choices for your better life. Book, as a source that may involve the facts, opinion, literature, religion, and many others are the great friends to join with.

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15,070 citations