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Louise Shelley

Bio: Louise Shelley is an academic researcher from George Mason University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Organised crime & Corruption. The author has an hindex of 25, co-authored 102 publications receiving 1996 citations. Previous affiliations of Louise Shelley include Federal University of Bahia & American University.


Papers
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Book
01 Jul 2010
TL;DR: The Rise and Costs of Human Trafficking: 1. Why has human trafficking flourished? 2. The diverse consequences of human trafficking Part II. The Financial Side of Human trafficking: 3. Human trafficking as transnational organized crime 4. The business of human trafficking Part III. Conclusion as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Introduction Part I. The Rise and Costs of Human Trafficking: 1. Why has human trafficking flourished? 2. The diverse consequences of human trafficking Part II. The Financial Side of Human Trafficking: 3. Human trafficking as transnational organized crime 4. The business of human trafficking Part III. Regional Perspectives: 5. Asian trafficking 6. Human trafficking in Eurasia and Eastern Europe 7. Trafficking in Europe 8. Trafficking in the United States 9. Human trafficking in Latin America and Africa Conclusion.

309 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Transnational organized crime has been a serious problem for most of the 20th century, but it has only recently been recognized as a threat to the world order by the United Nations as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Transnational organized crime has been a serious problem for most of the 20th century, but it has only recently been recognized as a threat to the world order. This criminality undermines the integrity of individual countries, but it is not yet a threat to the nation-state. Failure to develop viable, coordinated international policies in the face of ever-growing transnational criminality, however, may undermine the nation-state in the 21st century. The "global mafia" has been sensationalized by an international press eager for exciting copy, and intelligence organizations are assessing the dimensions of international drug trafficking.(2) Furthermore, in November 1994 the United Nations sponsored an international conference to develop strategies to combat organized crime.(3) The European Union is also taking numerous initiatives in this area. Attention to such a serious international problem is long overdue. The seriousness of the problem lies in the complexity of these organizations and their activities, their global penetration and the threat they pose to democracy and legitimate economic development - these organizations clearly undermine the concept of the nation-state. For the purposes of this article transnational criminal organizations will be considered as organized crime groups that 1) are based in one state; 2) commit their crimes in one but usually several host countries, whose market conditions are favorable; and 3) conduct illicit activities affording low risk of apprehension.(4) The complexity of transnational organized crime does not permit the construction of simple generalizations; there is no prototypical crime cartel. Organized crime groups engage in such widely publicized activities as drugs and arms trafficking, smuggling of automobiles and people and trafficking in stolen art. They also engage in such insidious activities as smuggling of embargoed commodities, industrial and technological espionage, financial market manipulation and the corruption and control of groups within and outside of the legal state system. Money laundering through multiple investments in banks, financial institutions and businesses around the globe has become a central and transnational feature of these groups' activities, as they need to hide ever-larger revenues.(5) Given this level of complexity and the political dynamics of the post-Second World War period, it is hardly surprising that no comprehensive international effort against organized crime has been initiated until recently. Transnational organized crime has been problematic for the last couple of decades, but it is only since the end of the Cold War that it has been addressed by so many countries and international bodies. The recently mounted attack on transnational organized crime is, indeed, partly a consequence of the need for security bodies (such as the CIA, KGB and the Mossad) and international organizations (such as the U.N. and the Council of Europe) to develop new missions in the post-cold War era. While the world focused on such highly visible problems as the superpower conflict or regional hostilities, the increasingly pemicious and pervasive transnational crime that now threatens the economic and political stability of many nations was ignored. Long-term neglect of this problem means that the world now faces highly developed criminal organizations that undermine the rule of law, international security and the world economy and which, if they are allowed to continue unimpeded, could threaten the concept of the nation-state. Factors in the Growth of Transnational Organized Crime The fundamental forces underlying the growth and increasingly international character of organized crime are the technological explosion and economic boom of the post-second World War period as well as the current geopolitical situation, which has been rapidly evolving since the collapse of the socialist world. The 1960s represent the benchmark for many of the technological and economic changes affecting transnational crimes, whereas the political changes contributing to the spread of transnational crime emerged in subsequent decades. …

159 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that to prevent future pandemics, the sale of exotic animals be banned at wet markets and the integration of the analysis of illicit trade with the study of zoonotic disease transmission andPandemics is advocated.
Abstract: Although the exact origin of SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19, is currently unknown, there is substantial evidence to suggest the source of transmission of the virus occurred within the Wuhan wet market. In these markets, bats and wild animals are frequently sold and stored in close contact. During several of the world's past pandemics, bats were essential to the spread of zoonotic diseases from bat to another animal or to humans directly. Live animal markets create the perfect conditions for novel viruses such as COVID-19 to emerge. This paper suggests that to prevent future pandemics, the sale of exotic animals be banned at wet markets. It also advocates for the integration of the analysis of illicit trade with the study of zoonotic disease transmission and pandemics.

106 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the relationship between transnational criminal organizations and terrorist groups and concluded that although they often adopt similar methods, they are inherently striving for divergent ends, crime is primarily an economically driven enterprise, while terrorism remains rooted in political pursuits.
Abstract: Transnational organized crime and corruption are topics that security planners are increasingly visiting in their analyses of terrorism, most often examining how terrorism and transnational organized crime intersect and diverge. Clarifying these relationships is vital to approaching the current turbulence in global politics. This article examines the relationships between these two entities to arrive at the conclusion that transnational criminal organizations and terrorist groups often adopt similar methods, they are inherently striving for divergent ends. Crime is primarily an economically driven enterprise, while terrorism remains rooted in political pursuits. While we note that such a relationship results in a number of consequences for policymakers and practitioners from both the US and the larger global community, an important conclusion we revisit throughout the article is the need for scholarly research on this relationship.

102 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The paper identifies the terminology or ontology used to describe a business model, and compares this terminology with previous work, and the general usages, roles and potential of the concept are outlined.
Abstract: This paper aims to clarify the concept of business models, its usages, and its roles in the Information Systems domain. A review of the literature shows a broad diversity of understandings, usages, and places in the firm. The paper identifies the terminology or ontology used to describe a business model, and compares this terminology with previous work. Then the general usages, roles and potential of the concept are outlined. Finally, the connection between the business model concept and Information Systems is described in the form of eight propositions to be analyzed in future work.

3,048 citations

Book
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors develop a regional approach to global security and present scenarios for the RSCs of the Americas, Europe, and Sub-Saharan Africa, respectively.
Abstract: Part I. Introduction: Developing a Regional Approach to Global Security: 1. Theories and histories about the structure of contemporary international security 2. Levels: distinguishing the regional from the global 3. Security complexes: a theory of regional security Part II. Asia: 4. South Asia: inching towards internal and external transformation 5. Northeast and southeast Asian security complexes during the Cold War 6. The 1990s and beyond: an emergent east Asian complex Conclusion Part III. The Middle East and Africa: Introduction 7. The Middle East: a perennial conflict formation 8. Sub-saharan Africa: security dynamics in a setting of weak and failed states Conclusions Part IV. The Americas: 9. North America: the sole superpower and its surroundings 10. South America: an under-conflictual anomaly? Conclusion: scenarios for the RSCs of the Americas Part V. The Europes: Introduction: 11. EU-Europe: the European Union and its 'near abroad' 12. The Balkans and Turkey 13. The post-Soviet space: a regional security complex around Russia Conclusion: scenarios for the European supercomplex Part VI. Conclusions: 14. Regions and powers: summing up and looking ahead 15. Reflections on conceptualising international security.

1,537 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors showed that migrants' habitual transnational political engagement is not as extensive, socially unbounded, "deterritorialized, and liberatory" as previously argued, and that the potential of transnationalism for transforming power asymmetries within and across countries has yet to be determined.
Abstract: This article presents evidence of the scale, relative intensity, and social determinants of immigrants’ transnational political engagement. It demonstrates that a stable and significant transnational field of political action connecting immigrants with their polities of origin does indeed exist. The results help temper celebratory images of the extent and effects of transnational engagement provided by some scholars. The article shows that migrants’ habitual transnational political engagement is far from being as extensive, socially unbounded, “deterritorialized,” and liberatory as previously argued. Transnational political action, then, is regularly undertaken by a small minority, is socially bounded across national borders, occurs in quite specific territorial jurisdictions, and appears to reproduce preexisting power asymmetries. The potential of transnationalism for transforming such asymmetries within and across countries has yet to be determined.

1,057 citations