Author

# Lucas Lacasa

Other affiliations: Technical University of Madrid, Education and Research Network, Spanish National Research Council ...read more

Bio: Lucas Lacasa is an academic researcher from Queen Mary University of London. The author has contributed to research in topics: Visibility graph & Series (mathematics). The author has an hindex of 27, co-authored 122 publications receiving 4347 citations. Previous affiliations of Lucas Lacasa include Technical University of Madrid & Education and Research Network.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: A simple and fast computational method, the visibility algorithm, that converts a time series into a graph, which inherits several properties of the series in its structure, enhancing the fact that power law degree distributions are related to fractality.

Abstract: In this work we present a simple and fast computational method, the visibility algorithm, that converts a time series into a graph. The constructed graph inherits several properties of the series in its structure. Thereby, periodic series convert into regular graphs, and random series do so into random graphs. Moreover, fractal series convert into scale-free networks, enhancing the fact that power law degree distributions are related to fractality, something highly discussed recently. Some remarkable examples and analytical tools are outlined to test the method's reliability. Many different measures, recently developed in the complex network theory, could by means of this new approach characterize time series from a new point of view.

1,320 citations

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TL;DR: The horizontal visibility algorithm as mentioned in this paper is a geometrically simpler and analytically solvable version of our former algorithm, focusing on the mapping of random series series of independent identically distributed random variables.

Abstract: networks. This procedure allows us to apply methods of complex network theory for characterizing time series. In this work we present the horizontal visibility algorithm, a geometrically simpler and analytically solvable version of our former algorithm, focusing on the mapping of random series series of independent identically distributed random variables. After presenting some properties of the algorithm, we present exact results on the topological properties of graphs associated with random series, namely, the degree distribution, the clustering coefficient, and the mean path length. We show that the horizontal visibility algorithm stands as a simple method to discriminate randomness in time series since any random series maps to a graph with an exponential degree distribution of the shape Pk=1 /32 /3 k2 , independent of the probability distribution from which the series was generated. Accordingly, visibility graphs with other Pk are related to nonrandom series. Numerical simulations confirm the accuracy of the theorems for finite series. In a second part, we show that the method is able to distinguish chaotic series from independent and identically distributed i.i.d. theory, studying the following situations: i noise-free low-dimensional chaotic series, ii low-dimensional noisy chaotic series, even in the presence of large amounts of noise, and iii high-dimensional chaotic series coupled map lattice, without needs for additional techniques such as surrogate data or noise reduction methods. Finally, heuristic arguments are given to explain the topological properties of chaotic series, and several sequences that are conjectured to be random are analyzed.

547 citations

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TL;DR: This work presents the horizontal visibility algorithm, a geometrically simpler and analytically solvable version of the former algorithm, focusing on the mapping of random series (series of independent identically distributed random variables), and presents exact results on the topological properties of graphs associated with random series, namely, the degree distribution, the clustering coefficient, and the mean path length.

Abstract: The visibility algorithm has been recently introduced as a mapping between time series and complex networks. This procedure allows to apply methods of complex network theory for characterizing time series. In this work we present the horizontal visibility algorithm, a geometrically simpler and analytically solvable version of our former algorithm, focusing on the mapping of random series (series of independent identically distributed random variables). After presenting some properties of the algorithm, we present exact results on the topological properties of graphs associated to random series, namely the degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and mean path length. We show that the horizontal visibility algorithm stands as a simple method to discriminate randomness in time series, since any random series maps to a graph with an exponential degree distribution of the shape P(k) = (1/3)(2/3)**(k-2), independently of the probability distribution from which the series was generated. Accordingly, visibility graphs with other P(k) are related to non-random series. Numerical simulations confirm the accuracy of the theorems for finite series. In a second part, we show that the method is able to distinguish chaotic series from i.i.d. theory, studying the following situations: (i) noise-free low-dimensional chaotic series, (ii) low-dimensional noisy chaotic series, even in the presence of large amounts of noise, and (iii) high-dimensional chaotic series (coupled map lattice), without needs for additional techniques such as surrogate data or noise reduction methods. Finally, heuristic arguments are given to explain the topological properties of chaotic series and several sequences which are conjectured to be random are analyzed.

387 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the exponent of the power law degree distribution depends linearly on the Hurst parameter, H, and that the degree distribution is a function of H. The authors also proposed a new methodology to quantify long-range dependence in fractional Gaussian noises and generic f−β noises.

Abstract: Fractional Brownian motion (fBm) has been used as a theoretical framework to study real-time series appearing in diverse scientific fields. Because of its intrinsic nonstationarity and long-range dependence, its characterization via the Hurst parameter, H, requires sophisticated techniques that often yield ambiguous results. In this work we show that fBm series map into a scale-free visibility graph whose degree distribution is a function of H. Concretely, it is shown that the exponent of the power law degree distribution depends linearly on H. This also applies to fractional Gaussian noises (fGn) and generic f−β noises. Taking advantage of these facts, we propose a brand new methodology to quantify long-range dependence in these series. Its reliability is confirmed with extensive numerical simulations and analytical developments. Finally, we illustrate this method quantifying the persistent behavior of human gait dynamics.

347 citations

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TL;DR: The horizontal visibility algorithm is used to characterize and distinguish between correlated stochastic, uncorrelated and chaotic processes, and it is shown that in every case the series maps into a graph with exponential degree distribution P(k)∼exp(-λk), where the value of λ characterizes the specific process.

Abstract: Nonlinear time series analysis is an active field of research that studies the structure of complex signals in order to derive information of the process that generated those series, for understanding, modeling and forecasting purposes. In the last years, some methods mapping time series to network representations have been proposed. The purpose is to investigate on the properties of the series through graph theoretical tools recently developed in the core of the celebrated complex network theory. Among some other methods, the so-called visibility algorithm has received much attention, since it has been shown that series correlations are captured by the algorithm and translated in the associated graph, opening the possibility of building fruitful connections between time series analysis, nonlinear dynamics, and graph theory. Here we use the horizontal visibility algorithm to characterize and distinguish between correlated stochastic, uncorrelated and chaotic processes. We show that in every case the series maps into a graph with exponential degree distribution P(k)∼exp(-λk), where the value of λ characterizes the specific process. The frontier between chaotic and correlated stochastic processes, λ=ln(3/2) , can be calculated exactly, and some other analytical developments confirm the results provided by extensive numerical simulations and (short) experimental time series.

227 citations

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28 Jul 2005

TL;DR: PfPMP1）与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用，在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.

Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1（PfPMP1）与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用，在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员，通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

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TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.

Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201

14,171 citations

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TL;DR: Some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems are reviewed, including those related to the WWW.

Abstract: We will review some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems. We will cover algorithmic and structural questions. We will touch on newer models, including those related to the WWW.

7,116 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a wide list of topics ranging from opinion and cultural and language dynamics to crowd behavior, hierarchy formation, human dynamics, and social spreading are reviewed and connections between these problems and other, more traditional, topics of statistical physics are highlighted.

Abstract: Statistical physics has proven to be a fruitful framework to describe phenomena outside the realm of traditional physics. Recent years have witnessed an attempt by physicists to study collective phenomena emerging from the interactions of individuals as elementary units in social structures. A wide list of topics are reviewed ranging from opinion and cultural and language dynamics to crowd behavior, hierarchy formation, human dynamics, and social spreading. The connections between these problems and other, more traditional, topics of statistical physics are highlighted. Comparison of model results with empirical data from social systems are also emphasized.

3,840 citations

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TL;DR: Van Kampen as mentioned in this paper provides an extensive graduate-level introduction which is clear, cautious, interesting and readable, and could be expected to become an essential part of the library of every physical scientist concerned with problems involving fluctuations and stochastic processes.

Abstract: N G van Kampen 1981 Amsterdam: North-Holland xiv + 419 pp price Dfl 180 This is a book which, at a lower price, could be expected to become an essential part of the library of every physical scientist concerned with problems involving fluctuations and stochastic processes, as well as those who just enjoy a beautifully written book. It provides an extensive graduate-level introduction which is clear, cautious, interesting and readable.

3,647 citations