Bio: Ludwig Paul is an academic researcher from University of Hamburg. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ideology & Vocabulary. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 23 citations.
TL;DR: In the period 1935-1940, the Iranian Language Academy (Farhangestān) proposed over 1,600 indigenous terms to replace words of Arabic or European origin this article.
Abstract: In the period 1935-1940, the Iranian Language Academy (Farhangestān) proposed over 1,600 indigenous terms to replace words of Arabic or European origin. Seventy years later, an assessment of the effects or “success” of this activity may be attempted. The Farhangestān’s success cannot be measured easily, by counting the successful words. A study of it requires a strict definition of the term “success” and a detailed analysis of the origin, semantics, usage, stylistics, etc. of each word. The analysis proposed here, using sixty terms, yields a scale of increasing success along which the coined terms may be arranged. The article aims to show that any exact numbers indicating the Farhangestān’s word-replacing success are of limited value; and that it is more interesting to ask how the new terms have been established and how they have systematically changed, and often enriched, the vocabulary of Persian.
TL;DR: The authors examined the extent to which the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) has deviated from the linguicidal policies of the Pahlavi dynasty towards non-Persian languages in Iran.
Abstract: It has been claimed that the 1979 revolution in Iran transformed the country in many respects. This article aims to examine the extent to which the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) has deviated, if at all, from the linguicidal policies of the Pahlavi dynasty towards non-Persian languages in Iran. The article finds, in both the monarchical and IRI regimes, a policy of (a) treating multilingualism as a threat to the country's territorial integrity and national unity, (b) restricting the use of non-Persian languages, and (3) promoting the supremacy of Persian as a venue for unifying the ethnically and linguistically heterogeneous body politic. While the continuity in the language policy of the two regimes is prominent, differences will be noted especially in the changing geolinguistic context of the region where Kurdish has achieved the status of an official language in Iraq (since 2005) and has enjoyed some level of tolerance in the linguicidal Turkish state (since 1991). New communication technologies as well as cross-border social and linguistic networking among the Kurds throughout Kurdistan and the world have changed the language environment but not the official policy of “one-nation=one-language”. Persianization of non-Persian peoples continues to be the building block of the Islamic regime's language policy.
20 Feb 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the problem of educational transfer in the context of leveraging and lending, and propose a solution to solve it using an educational transfer system, which they call educational transfer.
Abstract: 序章では、まず本書の中心テーマである教育移 転(educational transfer)について検討を加えてい る。教育移転とは、ある文脈のなかで発達した教 育モデルを別の文脈に移転する過程を指す比較国 際教育学の概念で、モデルの貸し借り(borrowing and lending)がその中心となるが、実際の過程に は様々な行為体や要因が関与している。特に、分 析に際して考慮しなければならないのは、行為体 (国、民間機関、国際機関)、原因(社会、政治、 経済、教育等)、過程(政策的誘因、実施、適応、 内在化等)であるとし、本書でもこれらの要因を 考慮した分析を行うとしている。 序章以降は、第1部(第1章~第2章)と第2部 (第3章~第7章)に分かれており、第1章では、 教育移転にかかわる政治過程において重要な役割 を果たす要因を見定めるために、教育移転に関す る様々な事例研究を検討し、序章で掲げた本書の 分析枠組みの妥当性を検証している。続く第2章 では、19世紀初頭から1979年の革命までの英語 教育史が概観されている。イランに最初に英語教 育をもたらしたのはアメリカやイギリスのミッ ショナリー・スクールだったが、教育を支配して いたシーア派宗教指導者の抵抗もあり、活動は限 定なものに留まった。イラン主導の英語教育とし て注目に値するのは、1871年に設立された国立翻 訳所で、英、仏、露、トルコ語の翻訳者を育成し た。1942年から、ブリティッシュ・カウンシル による英語教育が始まったが、1950年代以降は、 米国国際開発庁(USAID)の影響が強くなり、同 庁からの資金援助とアメリカのペンシルベニア大 学との協力で、英語を主な教授言語とするパフレ ヴィー大学が設立された。その後もイランとアメ リカの大学間連携が進み、英語教育の重要性が高 まった。民間レベルでも、1950年にショクーフ 英語学校が設立されるなど、国民の間に英語教育 が浸透していたった。 本書の中心である第2部では、革命以後のイ ランを4期に分け、第3章で「革命期(1979–1988 年)」、第4章で「復興・民営化期(1989–1997年)」、 第5章で「グローバルな展望期(1997–2005年)」、 第6章で「革命原点回帰期(2005–2008年)」を取 り上げ、各時期の英語教育に影響を与えた諸要因 を明らかにしている。 1980年、革命の指導者ホメイニー師は、文化や教 育から西洋の影響を排除する「浄化」(purification) と文化や教育にイスラームの価値を反映される 「イスラーム化」(Islamization)を柱とする「文化革 命」に着手した。「文化革命」を遂行するために、 イランの全大学は3年もの間、閉鎖され、その間 Maryam Borjian English in Post-Revolutionary Iran: From Indigenization to Internationalization Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2013.
01 Jan 2012
05 Jan 2015
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined how the German Democratic Republic represented Iran in the years from 1949, the year of the GDR's formation, until 1989, the last complete year before its demise on 3 October 1990.
Abstract: This thesis examines how the press of the erstwhile German Democratic Republic represented Iran in the years from 1949 ? the year of the GDR?s formation ? until 1989, the last complete year before its demise on 3 October 1990. The study focuses on key events in Iranian history such as the overthrow of the Mossadegh government in 1953, the White Revolution, the Islamic Revolution of 1979, and the Iran-Iraq war. It will be shown that although news and articles were based on selected facts, they still presented a picture of Iran that was at best distorted, the distortions and misrepresentations amounting to what could be described as 'factual fiction'. Furthermore, clear evidence will be provided that economical and political relations with Iran were a primary concern of the GDR?s leadership, and thus also of the GDR?s press and have therefore dominated the reporting on Iran. Whatever ideological concerns there may have been, they were hardly ever allowed to get in the way of amicable relations with the Shah or later with the Islamic Republic. Only in periods where the two countries enjoyed less amicable or poor relations, was the press free to critically report events in Iran and to openly support the cause of the SED?s communist Iranian sister party, the Tudeh.Despite East Germany?s diametric ideological environment and despite the fundamentally different role that the GDR?s political system had assigned to the press and to journalism, East Germany?s press was as reliant on the input of the global news agencies as any Western media. The at times almost complete reliance on Western news agencies as sources for news on Iran challenged more than just the hermeneutic hegemony the SED and the GDR?s press wanted to establish. After all, which news and information were made available by the news agencies to the media in both East and West was primarily determined by the business interests of said agencies.The study makes a contribution to three fields: Modern Iranian history, (East-) German history and media studies. The most valid findings were certainly made in the latter.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an insight into two Farsi complementary language classrooms in Copenhagen, Denmark, characterised by political sensitivities, and illustrate a number of characteristic features of the classrooms concerning language use, pedagogical methods and cultural phenomena, which were related to key adults’ preferences.
Abstract: This paper presents an insight into two Farsi complementary language classrooms in Copenhagen, Denmark, characterised by political sensitivities. We illustrate a number of characteristic features of the classrooms concerning language use, pedagogical methods and cultural phenomena, which were related to key adults’ preferences, and we consider possible interpretations of them as indexical signs. In particular, we emphasise ideological interpretations (e.g. the monolingualism norm and language purism) and we relate the classroom characteristics to the contemporary state of Iran as well as to the time and place in which the classes occurred. We analyse both explicit metapragmatic messages and implicit ways of indicating ideologies, and see both types as characterised by avoidance of particular referents, that is, by unmentionables. [Farsi]