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Lutz H. Gade

Bio: Lutz H. Gade is an academic researcher from Heidelberg University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ligand & Enantioselective synthesis. The author has an hindex of 55, co-authored 389 publications receiving 11756 citations. Previous affiliations of Lutz H. Gade include University of Nottingham & Centre national de la recherche scientifique.


Papers
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TL;DR: Two novel structural concepts have emerged during the past two years which have led literally to an explosion of the field of chiral NHC catalysts for stereoselective transformations in organic synthesis.
Abstract: In recent years, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) have proved to be a versatile class of spectator ligands in homogeneous catalysis. Being robust anchoring functions for late transition metals, their ligand donor capacity and their molecular shape is readily modified by variation of the substituents at the N-atoms and the structure of the cyclic backbone. After the first attempts to use chiral NHC ligands in asymmetric catalysis in the late 1990's, which initially met with limited success, several novel structural concepts have emerged during the past two years which have led literally to an explosion of the field. With a significant number of highly selective chiral catalysts based on chiral NHCs having been reported very recently, several general trends in the design of new NHC-containing molecular catalysts for stereoselective transformations in organic synthesis emerge.

776 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Advances in the conceptual framework for the quantitative description of bond polarity have led to a refined understanding of the nature of metal-metal bonding, which offers attractive perspectives in stoichiometric or even catalytic transformations.
Abstract: Metal-metal bond polarity in its extreme form involving transition elements is found in di- or polynuclear complexes in which molecular fragments containing metal atoms from the two ends of the d block in the periodic table are combined. This linkage by direct metal-metal bonds of metal centers having very different oxidation states has been a challenge to the synthetic chemist. The suppression of degradative reaction channels caused by intramolecular single-electron transfer and the protection of the highly Lewis acidic early transition metal center by an appropriately designed ligand shell have opened up the systematic investigation of such systems. Concomitant with this development, advances in the conceptual framework for the quantitative description of bond polarity have led to a refined understanding of the nature of this type of metal-metal bonding. The greatest stimulus for the development of this field of research is the investigation of the cooperative reactivity of two or more coordination centers in their interaction with and transformation of organic substrates. This cooperativity, which is characterized by the different functions adopted by the metal centers in these conversions offers attractive perspectives in stoichiometric or even catalytic transformations.

231 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands in asymmetric catalysis met with very limited success, several novel structural concepts have emerged which have led to a rapid expansion of the field since the beginning of this decade.

222 citations


Cited by
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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: 1. Advantages and disadvantages of Chemical Redox Agents, 2. Reversible vs Irreversible ET Reagents, 3. Categorization of Reagent Strength.
Abstract: 1. Advantages of Chemical Redox Agents 878 2. Disadvantages of Chemical Redox Agents 879 C. Potentials in Nonaqueous Solvents 879 D. Reversible vs Irreversible ET Reagents 879 E. Categorization of Reagent Strength 881 II. Oxidants 881 A. Inorganic 881 1. Metal and Metal Complex Oxidants 881 2. Main Group Oxidants 887 B. Organic 891 1. Radical Cations 891 2. Carbocations 893 3. Cyanocarbons and Related Electron-Rich Compounds 894

3,432 citations

01 Dec 1991
TL;DR: In this article, self-assembly is defined as the spontaneous association of molecules under equilibrium conditions into stable, structurally well-defined aggregates joined by noncovalent bonds.
Abstract: Molecular self-assembly is the spontaneous association of molecules under equilibrium conditions into stable, structurally well-defined aggregates joined by noncovalent bonds. Molecular self-assembly is ubiquitous in biological systems and underlies the formation of a wide variety of complex biological structures. Understanding self-assembly and the associated noncovalent interactions that connect complementary interacting molecular surfaces in biological aggregates is a central concern in structural biochemistry. Self-assembly is also emerging as a new strategy in chemical synthesis, with the potential of generating nonbiological structures with dimensions of 1 to 10(2) nanometers (with molecular weights of 10(4) to 10(10) daltons). Structures in the upper part of this range of sizes are presently inaccessible through chemical synthesis, and the ability to prepare them would open a route to structures comparable in size (and perhaps complementary in function) to those that can be prepared by microlithography and other techniques of microfabrication.

2,591 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New methods for the synthesis of complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene ligands such as the oxidative addition or the metal atom template controlled cyclized isocyanides have been developed recently.
Abstract: The chemistry of heterocyclic carbenes has experienced a rapid development over the last years. In addition to the imidazolin-2-ylidenes, a large number of cyclic diaminocarbenes with different ring sizes have been described. Aside from diaminocarbenes, P-heterocyclic carbenes, and derivatives with only one, or even no heteroatom within the carbene ring are known. New methods for the synthesis of complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene ligands such as the oxidative addition or the metal atom template controlled cyclization of β-functionalized isocyanides have been developed recently. This review summarizes the new developments regarding the synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbenes and their metal complexes.

2,454 citations