M. A. Perez-Jubindo
Other affiliations: Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Bio: M. A. Perez-Jubindo is an academic researcher from University of the Basque Country. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Liquid crystal & Dielectric. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 35 publication(s) receiving 1165 citation(s). Previous affiliations of M. A. Perez-Jubindo include Polytechnic University of Catalonia.
Topics: Liquid crystal, Dielectric, Phase transition, Mesophase, Phase (matter)
16 Sep 2011-Physical Review E
TL;DR: It is concluded that the low-temperature mesophase of CB7CB is a new type of uniaxial nematic phase having a nonuniform director distribution composed of twist-bend deformations, and calculations using an atomistic model and the surface interaction potential with Monte Carlo sampling predict dielectric and elastic properties in the nematics phase.
Abstract: The liquid-crystal dimer 1'',7''-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yl)heptane (CB7CB) exhibits two liquid-crystalline mesophases on cooling from the isotropic phase. The high-temperature phase is nematic; the identification and characterization of the other liquid-crystal phase is reported in this paper. It is concluded that the low-temperature mesophase of CB7CB is a new type of uniaxial nematic phase having a nonuniform director distribution composed of twist-bend deformations. The techniques of small-angle x-ray scattering, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, and dielectric spectroscopy have been applied to establish the nature of the nematic-nematic phase transition and the structural features of the twist-bend nematic phase. In addition, magnetic resonance studies (electron-spin resonance and (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance) have been used to investigate the orientational order and director distribution in the liquid-crystalline phases of CB7CB. The synthesis of a specifically deuterated sample of CB7CB is reported, and measurements showed a bifurcation of the quadrupolar splitting on entering the low-temperature mesophase from the high-temperature nematic phase. This splitting could be interpreted in terms of the chirality of the twist-bend structure of the director. Calculations using an atomistic model and the surface interaction potential with Monte Carlo sampling have been carried out to determine the conformational distribution and predict dielectric and elastic properties in the nematic phase. The former are in agreement with experimental measurements, while the latter are consistent with the formation of a twist-bend nematic phase.
TL;DR: In this paper, the columnar mesophase was investigated by optical microscopy, DSC and X-ray diffraction, and identified as a rectangular columnar (P21).
Abstract: Chiral oxovanadium(IV), copper(II), and palladium(II) ‚-diketonates show a room-temperature columnar mesophase which undergoes ferroelectric switching. All the compounds were obtained as liquid crystals at room temperature, and crystallization or melting processes were not detected by differential scanning calorimetry carried out to -20 °C. The mesophase was investigated by optical microscopy, DSC and X-ray diffraction, and identified as a rectangular columnar ( P21). The flowerlike texture observed for all the compounds led us to deduce a high tilt angle (ca. 40°) of the molecules with respect to the column axis. Circular dichroism has confirmed the existence of a helical arrangement within the column. This result is in accordance with the so-called columnar mode found at low frequencies (ca. 10 -3 Hz) in dielectric spectroscopy studies. The electrooptical response of these materials has been examined by means of a photomultiplier. The results obtained can be explained by considering a strong influence of the high tilt angle found in the mesophase.
TL;DR: It is concluded that the low temperature mesophase exhibits the characteristics of a twist-bend nematic phase, and the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition has been exhaustively studied from the accurate evolution of the heat capacity and the static dielectric permittivity data.
Abstract: This paper reports a novel liquid crystal phase having the characteristics of a twist-bend nematic phase formed by a non-symmetric ether-linked liquid crystal dimer. The dimer 1''-(2',4-difluorobiphenyl-4'-yloxy)-9''-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yloxy) nonane (FFO9OCB) exhibits two liquid-crystalline phases on cooling at a sufficiently high rate from the isotropic phase. The high temperature mesophase has been reported in the literature as nematic and confirmed in this study. The other mesophase is metastable and can be supercooled giving rise to a glassy state. Its identification and characterization are based on optical textures, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, calorimetry, measurements of both splay and bend elastic constants in the nematic phase and miscibility studies. It is concluded that the low temperature mesophase exhibits the characteristics of a twist-bend nematic phase. Dielectric measurements enable us to obtain the static permittivity and information about the molecular dynamics in the isotropic phase, in the nematic mesophase and across the isotropic-to-nematic phase transition. Two orientations, parallel and perpendicular to the director, have been investigated. In the high temperature nematic mesophase, the dielectric anisotropy is found to be positive. Measurements of the parallel component of the dielectric permittivity are well-explained by the molecular theory of dielectric relaxation in nematic dimers (M. Stocchero, A. Ferrarini, G. J. Moro, D. A. Dunmur and G. R. Luckhurst, J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 121, 8079). The dimer is modelled as a mixture of cis and trans conformers and the model allows an estimate of their relative populations at each temperature. The nematic-to-isotropic phase transition has been exhaustively studied from the accurate evolution of the heat capacity and the static dielectric permittivity data. It has been concluded that the transition is first order in nature, but close to tricritical. The nature of the nematic-to-the novel liquid crystal phase transition is difficult to analyze to the same extent because of insufficient precision. Only observations at cooling rates of 10 K min(-1) or higher were possible because on heating from the glassy state, the twist-bend nematic mesophase crystallizes at temperatures far below the nematic-nematic phase transition.
TL;DR: In this paper, three amorphous piezoelectric polyimides have been synthesized and characterized to analyze their utility for high-temperature applications, and they have been prepared from 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride and diamines 2,4-di(3-aminophenoxy)benzonitrile.
Abstract: Three amorphous piezoelectric polyimides have been synthesized and characterized to analyze their utility for high-temperature applications. The studied polyimides have been prepared from 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride and the diamines 2,4-di(3-aminophenoxy)benzonitrile (poly2-4), 2,6-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzonitrile (poly2-6), and 1,3-bis-2-cyano-3-(3-aminophenoxy)phenoxybenzene (poly2CN). These polyimides differ in the position of the dipolar groups -CN in the aromatic ring (poly2-4 and poly2-6) and in the number of these groups in the repetitive unit (poly2-6 and poly2CN). The imidization degree has been studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The piezoelectric behavior has been analyzed from remnant polarization measurements.
15 Jun 2004-Physical Review B
TL;DR: In this article, the structural properties of phase II and its glass transition were investigated from a structural point of view using x-ray diffraction and dynamic dielectric spectroscopy.
Abstract: –OH) is revealed to be a complexproblem and only two stable solid phases, denoted on cooling from the liquid as phases I and II, are foundusing static ~thermodynamic and x-ray diffraction! as well as dynamic ~dielectric spectroscopy! experimentaltechniques. Both solid phases are known to exhibit glass transitions if they are cooled down fast enough toprevent transition to ordered crystalline states. Although glass transitions corresponding to both phases hadbeen well documented by means of speciﬁc heat measurements, x-ray measurements constitute, as far as weknow, the ﬁrst evidence from the structural point of view. In addition, a great amount of dielectric worksdevoted to phase I and its glass transition, were published in the past but next to nothing relating to thedielectric properties of phase II and its glass transition. The nature of the disorder of phase II will be discussed.DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.69.224202 PACS number~s!: 61.43.2j, 64.70.Pf, 65.60.1a, 77.22.2dI. INTRODUCTION
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe photonic crystals as the analogy between electron waves in crystals and the light waves in artificial periodic dielectric structures, and the interest in periodic structures has been stimulated by the fast development of semiconductor technology that now allows the fabrication of artificial structures, whose period is comparable with the wavelength of light in the visible and infrared ranges.
Abstract: The term photonic crystals appears because of the analogy between electron waves in crystals and the light waves in artificial periodic dielectric structures. During the recent years the investigation of one-, two-and three-dimensional periodic structures has attracted a widespread attention of the world optics community because of great potentiality of such structures in advanced applied optical fields. The interest in periodic structures has been stimulated by the fast development of semiconductor technology that now allows the fabrication of artificial structures, whose period is comparable with the wavelength of light in the visible and infrared ranges.
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: A review of the collected works of John Tate can be found in this paper, where the authors present two volumes of the Abel Prize for number theory, Parts I, II, edited by Barry Mazur and Jean-Pierre Serre.
Abstract: This is a review of Collected Works of John Tate. Parts I, II, edited by Barry Mazur and Jean-Pierre Serre. American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island, 2016. For several decades it has been clear to the friends and colleagues of John Tate that a “Collected Works” was merited. The award of the Abel Prize to Tate in 2010 added impetus, and finally, in Tate’s ninety-second year we have these two magnificent volumes, edited by Barry Mazur and Jean-Pierre Serre. Beyond Tate’s published articles, they include five unpublished articles and a selection of his letters, most accompanied by Tate’s comments, and a collection of photographs of Tate. For an overview of Tate’s work, the editors refer the reader to . Before discussing the volumes, I describe some of Tate’s work. 1. Hecke L-series and Tate’s thesis Like many budding number theorists, Tate’s favorite theorem when young was Gauss’s law of quadratic reciprocity. When he arrived at Princeton as a graduate student in 1946, he was fortunate to find there the person, Emil Artin, who had discovered the most general reciprocity law, so solving Hilbert’s ninth problem. By 1920, the German school of algebraic number theorists (Hilbert, Weber, . . .) together with its brilliant student Takagi had succeeded in classifying the abelian extensions of a number field K: to each group I of ideal classes in K, there is attached an extension L of K (the class field of I); the group I determines the arithmetic of the extension L/K, and the Galois group of L/K is isomorphic to I. Artin’s contribution was to prove (in 1927) that there is a natural isomorphism from I to the Galois group of L/K. When the base field contains an appropriate root of 1, Artin’s isomorphism gives a reciprocity law, and all possible reciprocity laws arise this way. In the 1930s, Chevalley reworked abelian class field theory. In particular, he replaced “ideals” with his “idèles” which greatly clarified the relation between the local and global aspects of the theory. For his thesis, Artin suggested that Tate do the same for Hecke L-series. When Hecke proved that the abelian L-functions of number fields (generalizations of Dirichlet’s L-functions) have an analytic continuation throughout the plane with a functional equation of the expected type, he saw that his methods applied even to a new kind of L-function, now named after him. Once Tate had developed his harmonic analysis of local fields and of the idèle group, he was able prove analytic continuation and functional equations for all the relevant L-series without Hecke’s complicated theta-formulas. Received by the editors September 5, 2016. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 01A75, 11-06, 14-06. c ©2017 American Mathematical Society
25 Jun 2007-Angewandte Chemie
TL;DR: This Review will focus on the major classes of columnar mesogens rather than presenting a library of columner liquid crystals, and emphasis will be given to efficient synthetic procedures, and relevant mesomorphic and physical properties.
Abstract: Most associate liquid crystals with their everyday use in laptop computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other electronic devices. However, in contrast to their rodlike (calamitic) counterparts, first described in 1907 by Vorlander, disklike (discotic, columnar) liquid crystals, which were discovered in 1977 by Chandrasekhar et al., offer further applications as a result of their orientation in the columnar mesophase, making them ideal candidates for molecular wires in various optical and electronic devices such as photocopiers, laser printers, photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, and holographic data storage. Beginning with an overview of the various mesophases and characterization methods, this Review will focus on the major classes of columnar mesogens rather than presenting a library of columnar liquid crystals. Emphasis will be given to efficient synthetic procedures, and relevant mesomorphic and physical properties. Finally, some applications and perspectives in materials science and molecular electronics will be discussed.
TL;DR: An overview on the recent developments in the field of liquid crystalline bent-core molecules (so-called banana liquid crystals) is given in this article, dealing with general aspects of the systematisation of the mesophases, development of polar order and chirality in this class of LC systems and explaining some general structure-property relationships.
Abstract: An overview on the recent developments in the field of liquid crystalline bent-core molecules (so-called banana liquid crystals) is given. After some basic issues, dealing with general aspects of the systematisation of the mesophases, development of polar order and chirality in this class of LC systems and explaining some general structure–property relationships, we focus on fascinating new developments in this field, such as modulated, undulated and columnar phases, so-called B7 phases, phase biaxiality, ferroelectric and antiferroelectric polar order in smectic and columnar phases, amplification and switching of chirality and the spontaneous formation of superstructural and supramolecular chirality.
TL;DR: In this article, structural and properties of liquid crystalline phases formed by bent-core molecules are reviewed and the most attractive properties of this new class of liquid crystals are in polarity and chirality, despite being formed from achiral molecules.
Abstract: Structures and properties of liquid crystalline phases formed by bent-core molecules are reviewed. At least eight phases designated as B1–B8 have been found, being unambiguously distinguished from phases formed by usual calamitic molecules due to a number of remarkable peculiarities. In addition to B1–B8 phases, smectic A-like phases and biaxial nematic phases formed by bent-core molecules are also reviewed. The most attractive aspects of this new class of liquid crystals are in polarity and chirality, despite being formed from achiral molecules. The bent-core mesogens are the first ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystals realized without introducing chirality. Spontaneous chiral deracemization at microscopic and macroscopic levels occurs and is controllable. Moreover, achiral bent-core molecules enhance system chirality. The interplay between polarity and chirality provides chiral nonlinear optic effects. Further interesting phenomena related to polarity and chirality are also reviewed.