Other affiliations: International Islamic University, Chittagong
Bio: M. Faisal is an academic researcher from Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The author has contributed to research in topics: Microgrid & State of charge. The author has an hindex of 7, co-authored 16 publications receiving 445 citations. Previous affiliations of M. Faisal include International Islamic University, Chittagong.
TL;DR: An advanced ESS is required with regard to capacity, protection, control interface, energy management, and characteristics to enhance the performance of ESS in MG applications to develop a cost-effective and efficient ESS model with a prolonged life cycle for sustainable MG implementation.
Abstract: A microgrid (MG) is a local entity that consists of distributed energy resources (DERs) to achieve local power reliability and sustainable energy utilization. The MG concept or renewable energy technologies integrated with energy storage systems (ESS) have gained increasing interest and popularity because it can store energy at off-peak hours and supply energy at peak hours. However, existing ESS technology faces challenges in storing energy due to various issues, such as charging/discharging, safety, reliability, size, cost, life cycle, and overall management. Thus, an advanced ESS is required with regard to capacity, protection, control interface, energy management, and characteristics to enhance the performance of ESS in MG applications. This paper comprehensively reviews the types of ESS technologies, ESS structures along with their configurations, classifications, features, energy conversion, and evaluation process. Moreover, details on the advantages and disadvantages of ESS in MG applications have been analyzed based on the process of energy formations, material selection, power transfer mechanism, capacity, efficiency, and cycle period. Existing reviews critically demonstrate the current technologies for ESS in MG applications. However, the optimum management of ESSs for efficient MG operation remains a challenge in modern power system networks. This review also highlights the key factors, issues, and challenges with possible recommendations for the further development of ESS in future MG applications. All the highlighted insights of this review significantly contribute to the increasing effort toward the development of a cost-effective and efficient ESS model with a prolonged life cycle for sustainable MG implementation.
TL;DR: A critical review of the potential of an IoE-based BEMS for enhancing the performance of future generation building energy utilization and provides several suggestions for the research and development of the advanced optimized controller and IoE of future BEMSs.
Abstract: A building energy management system (BEMS) is a sophisticated method used for monitoring and controlling a building’s energy requirements A number of potential studies were conducted in nearly or net zero energy buildings (nZEBs) for the optimization of building energy consumption through efficient and sustainable ways Moreover, policy makers are approving measures to improve building energy efficiency in order to foster sustainable energy usages However, the intelligence of existing BEMSs or nZEBs is inadequate, because of the static set points for heating, cooling, and lighting, the complexity of large amounts of BEMS data, data loss, and network problems To solve these issues, a BEMS or nZEB solution based on the Internet of energy (IoE) provides disruptive opportunities for revolutionizing sustainable building energy management This paper presents a critical review of the potential of an IoE-based BEMS for enhancing the performance of future generation building energy utilization The detailed studies of the IoE architecture, typical nZEB configuration, different generations of nZEB, and smart building energy systems for future BEMS are investigated The operations, advantages, and limitations of the existing BEMSs or nZEBs are illustrated A comprehensive review of the different types of IoE-based BEMS technologies, such as energy routers, storage systems and materials, renewable sources, and plug-and-play interfaces, is then presented The rigorous review indicates that existing BEMSs require advanced controllers integrated with IoE-based technologies for sustainable building energy usage The main objective of this review is to highlight several issues and challenges of the conventional controllers and IoE applications of BEMSs or nZEBs Accordingly, the review provides several suggestions for the research and development of the advanced optimized controller and IoE of future BEMSs All the highlighted insights and recommendations of this review will hopefully lead to increasing efforts toward the development of the future BEMS applications
TL;DR: This manuscript comprehensively reviews EV control charging strategies using real-world data and classifies them into scheduling, clustering, and forecasting strategies, and provides potential recommendations.
Abstract: The usage and adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) have increased rapidly in the 21st century due to the shifting of the global energy demand away from fossil fuels. The market penetration of EVs brings new challenges to the usual operations of the power system. Uncontrolled EV charging impacts the local distribution grid in terms of its voltage profile, power loss, grid unbalance, and reduction of transformer life, as well as harmonic distortion. Multiple research studies have addressed these problems by proposing various EV charging control methods. This manuscript comprehensively reviews EV control charging strategies using real-world data. This review classifies the EV control charging strategies into scheduling, clustering, and forecasting strategies. The models of EV control charging strategies are highlighted to compare and evaluate the techniques used in EV charging, enabling the identification of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods applied. A summary of the methods and techniques for these EV charging strategies is presented based on machine learning and probabilities approaches. This research paper indicates many factors and challenges in the development of EV charging control in next-generation smart grid applications and provides potential recommendations. A report on the guidelines for future studies on this research topic is provided to enhance the comparability of the various results and findings. Accordingly, all the highlighted insights of this paper serve to further the increasing effort towards the development of advanced EV charging methods and demand-side management (DSM) for future smart grid applications.
TL;DR: This review highlights details of ESS sizing to optimize storage capacity, reduce consumption, minimize storage cost, determine the optimal placement and mitigate carbon emission for decarbonization.
Abstract: Carbon emission from the burning of fossil fuel has resulted in global warming Climate change and global warming are among the most complex issues requiring immediate solutions Microgrid (MG) based on renewable energy sources (RESs) can be used to reduce the carbon intensity of electricity and achieve the global decarbonization goal by 2050 Optimizing the size of the energy storage system (ESS) can ensure the sustainable, resilient, and economic operation of the MG Thus, key features of the optimal ESS, including methods and algorithms of ESS sizing, power quality, reliability, connection mode, and public policy enforcement for low-carbon emission, must be identified Existing literature mostly focuses on the cost-effective optimal sizing method based on capacity minimization, which overlooks other issues This work reviews the features of optimal ESS sizing methods and algorithms, their characteristics, and the scenarios between ESS and decarbonization in MG applications to address their shortcomings ESS characteristics on storage type, energy density, efficiency, advantages, and issues are analyzed This review highlights details of ESS sizing to optimize storage capacity, reduce consumption, minimize storage cost, determine the optimal placement and mitigate carbon emission for decarbonization The analyses on the understanding of decarbonization in relation to the use of ESS in MG scenarios are explained rigorously Existing research gaps, issues, and challenges of ESS sizing for next-generation MG development are also highlighted This review will strengthen the efforts of researchers and industrialists to develop an optimally sized ESS for future MGs that can contribute toward achieving the decarbonization goal
TL;DR: This review presents a detailed investigation of different electric vehicle Converters highlighting topology, features, components, operation, strengths and weaknesses and the significance of optimization algorithms in electric vehicle converters is illustrated along with their objective functions, executions and various factors.
Abstract: Electric vehicles are receiving widespread attention around the world due to their improved performance and zero carbon emissions. The effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on proper interfacing between energy storage systems and power electronics converters. However, the power delivered by energy storage systems illustrates unstable, unregulated and substantial voltage drops. To overcome these limitations, electric vehicle converters, controllers and modulation schemes are necessary to achieve a secured and reliable power transfer from energy storage systems to the electric motor. Nonetheless, electric vehicle converters and controllers have shortcomings including a large number of components, high current stress, high switching loss, slow dynamic response and computational complexity. Therefore, this review presents a detailed investigation of different electric vehicle converters highlighting topology, features, components, operation, strengths and weaknesses. Moreover, this review explores the various types of electric vehicle converter controllers and modulation techniques concerning functional capabilities, operation, benefits and drawbacks. Besides, the significance of optimization algorithms in electric vehicle converters is illustrated along with their objective functions, executions and various factors. Furthermore, this review explores the key issues and challenges of electric vehicle converters, controllers and optimizations to identify future research gaps. Finally, important and specific suggestions are delivered toward the development of an efficient converter for future sustainable electric vehicle applications.
TL;DR: This review presents the recent SOC estimation methods highlighting the model-based and data-driven approaches and delivers potential recommendations for the development of SOC estimation method of lithium-ion battery in EV applications.
Abstract: Lithium-ion battery is an appropriate choice for electric vehicle (EV) due to its promising features of high voltage, high energy density, low self-discharge and long lifecycles. The successful operation of EV is highly dependent on the operation of battery management system (BMS). State of charge (SOC) is one of the vital paraments of BMS which signifies the amount of charge left in a battery. A good estimation of SOC leads to long battery life and prevention of catastrophe from battery failure. Besides, an accurate and robust SOC estimation has great significance towards an efficient EV operation. However, SOC estimation is a complex process due to its dependency on various factors such as battery age, ambient temperature, and many unknown factors. This review presents the recent SOC estimation methods highlighting the model-based and data-driven approaches. Model-based methods attempt to model the battery behavior incorporating various factors into complex mathematical equations in order to accurately estimate the SOC while the data-driven methods adopt an approach of learning the battery's behavior by running complex algorithms with a large amount of measured battery data. The classifications of model-based and data-driven based SOC estimation are explained in terms of estimation model/algorithm, benefits, drawbacks, and estimation error. In addition, the review highlights many factors and challenges and delivers potential recommendations for the development of SOC estimation methods in EV applications. All the highlighted insights of this review will hopefully lead to increased efforts toward the enhancement of SOC estimation method of lithium-ion battery for the future high-tech EV applications.
TL;DR: The characteristics, advantages, limitations, costs, and environmental considerations have been compared with the help of tables and demonstrations to ease the final decision and managing the emerging issues and may prove highly useful for various stakeholders of the energy sector.
Abstract: Energy systems are dynamic and transitional because of alternative energy resources, technological innovations, demand, costs, and environmental consequences. The fossil fuels are the sources of traditional energy generation but has been gradually transitioned to the current innovative technologies with an emphasis on renewable resources like solar, and wind. Despite consistent increases in energy prices, the customers’ demands are escalating rapidly due to an increase in populations, economic development, per capita consumption, supply at remote places, and in static forms for machines and portable devices. The energy storage may allow flexible generation and delivery of stable electricity for meeting demands of customers. The requirements for energy storage will become triple of the present values by 2030 for which very special devices and systems are required. The objective of the current review research is to compare and evaluate the devices and systems presently in use and anticipated for the future. The economic and environmental issues as well as challenges and limitations have been elaborated through deep and strong consultation of literature, previous research, reports and journal. The technologies like flow batteries, super capacitors, SMES (Superconducting magnetic energy storage), FES (Flywheel Energy Storage), PHS (Pumped hydro storage), TES (Thermal Energy Storage), CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage), and HES (Hybrid energy storage) have been discussed. This article may contribute to guide the decision-makers and the practitioners if they want to select the most recent and innovative devices and systems of energy storage for their grids and other associated uses like machines and portable devices. The characteristics, advantages, limitations, costs, and environmental considerations have been compared with the help of tables and demonstrations to ease their final decision and managing the emerging issues. Thus, the outcomes of this review study may prove highly useful for various stakeholders of the energy sector.
TL;DR: The state-of-the-art storage systems and their characteristics are thoroughly reviewed along with the cutting edge research prototypes and the potential application fields are identified.
Abstract: It is an exciting time for power systems as there are many ground-breaking changes happening simultaneously. There is a global concensus in increasing the share of renewable energy-based generation in the overall mix, transitioning to a more environmental-friendly transportation with electric vehicles as well as liberalizing the electricity markets, much to the distaste of traditional utility companies. All of these changes are against the status quo and introduce new paradigms in the way the power systems operate. The generation penetrates distribution networks, renewables introduce intermittency, and liberalized markets need more competitive operation with the existing assets. All of these challenges require using some sort of storage device to develop viable power system operation solutions. There are different types of storage systems with different costs, operation characteristics, and potential applications. Understanding these is vital for the future design of power systems whether it be for short-term transient operation or long-term generation planning. In this paper, the state-of-the-art storage systems and their characteristics are thoroughly reviewed along with the cutting edge research prototypes. Based on their architectures, capacities, and operation characteristics, the potential application fields are identified. Finally, the research fields that are related to energy storage systems are studied with their impacts on the future of power systems.
TL;DR: A review of management strategies for building energy management systems for improving energy efficiency is presented and different management strategies are investigated in non-residential and residential buildings.
Abstract: Building energy use is expected to grow by more than 40% in the next 20 years. Electricity remains the largest energy source consumed by buildings, and that demand is growing. To mitigate the impact of the growing demand, strategies are needed to improve buildings' energy efficiency. In residential buildings home appliances, water, and space heating are answerable for the increase of energy use, while space heating and other miscellaneous equipment are behind the increase of energy utilization in non-residential buildings. Building energy management systems support building managers and proprietors to increase energy efficiency in modern and existing buildings, non-residential and residential buildings can benefit from building energy management system to decrease energy use. Base on the type of building, different management strategies can be used to achieve energy savings. This paper presents a review of management strategies for building energy management systems for improving energy efficiency. Different management strategies are investigated in non-residential and residential buildings. Following this, the reviewed researches are discussed in terms of the type of buildings, building systems, and management strategies. Lastly, the paper discusses future challenges for the increase of energy efficiency in building energy management system.
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of the battery energy-storage system concerning optimal sizing objectives, the system constraint, various optimization models, and approaches along with their advantages and weakness is provided.
Abstract: Due to urbanization and the rapid growth of population, carbon emission is increasing, which leads to climate change and global warming. With an increased level of fossil fuel burning and scarcity of fossil fuel, the power industry is moving to alternative energy resources such as photovoltaic power (PV), wind power (WP), and battery energy-storage systems (BESS), among others. BESS has some advantages over conventional energy sources, which include fast and steady response, adaptability, controllability, environmental friendliness, and geographical independence, and it is considered as a potential solution to the global warming problem. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the battery energy-storage system concerning optimal sizing objectives, the system constraint, various optimization models, and approaches along with their advantages and weakness. Furthermore, for better understanding, the optimization objectives and methods have been classified into different categories. This paper also provides a detailed discussion on the BESS applications and explores the shortages of existing optimal BESS sizing algorithms to identify the gaps for future research. The issues and challenges are also highlighted to provide a clear idea to the researchers in the field of BESS. Overall, this paper conveys some significant recommendations that would be useful to the researchers and policymakers to structure a productive, powerful, efficient, and robust battery energy-storage system toward a future with a sustainable environment.