Bio: M. Gopal is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. The author has contributed to research in topics: Support vector machine & Artificial neural network. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 37 publications receiving 1076 citations.
TL;DR: A least squares version of the recently proposed twin support vector machine (TSVM) for binary classification has comparable classification accuracy to that of TSVM but with considerably lesser computational time.
Abstract: In this paper we formulate a least squares version of the recently proposed twin support vector machine (TSVM) for binary classification. This formulation leads to extremely simple and fast algorithm for generating binary classifiers based on two non-parallel hyperplanes. Here we attempt to solve two modified primal problems of TSVM, instead of two dual problems usually solved. We show that the solution of the two modified primal problems reduces to solving just two systems of linear equations as opposed to solving two quadratic programming problems along with two systems of linear equations in TSVM. Classification using nonlinear kernel also leads to systems of linear equations. Our experiments on publicly available datasets indicate that the proposed least squares TSVM has comparable classification accuracy to that of TSVM but with considerably lesser computational time. Since linear least squares TSVM can easily handle large datasets, we further went on to investigate its efficiency for text categorization applications. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method over linear proximal SVM on all the text corpuses considered.
TL;DR: This paper attempts to solve the primal quadratic programming problems of twin SVM by converting them into smooth unconstrained minimization problems using the well-known Newton-Armijo algorithm.
Abstract: This paper enhances the recently proposed twin SVM Jayadeva et al. [Jayadeva, Khemchandani, R., Chandra, S., 2007. Twin support vector machines for pattern classification. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 29 (5), 905-910] using smoothing techniques to smooth twin SVM for binary classification. We attempt to solve the primal quadratic programming problems of twin SVM by converting them into smooth unconstrained minimization problems. The smooth reformulations are solved using the well-known Newton-Armijo algorithm. The effectiveness of the enhanced method is demonstrated by experimental results on available benchmark datasets.
TL;DR: A hybrid SVM based decision tree to speedup SVMs in its testing phase for binary classification tasks and achieves significant speedup when compared to SVMs, without any compromise in classification accuracy.
Abstract: We have proposed a hybrid SVM based decision tree to speedup SVMs in its testing phase for binary classification tasks. While most existing methods addressed towards this task aim at reducing the number of support vectors, we have focused on reducing the number of test datapoints that need SVM's help in getting classified. The central idea is to approximate the decision boundary of SVM using decision trees. The resulting tree is a hybrid tree in the sense that it has both univariate and multivariate (SVM) nodes. The hybrid tree takes SVM's help only in classifying crucial datapoints lying near decision boundary; remaining less crucial datapoints are classified by fast univariate nodes. The classification accuracy of the hybrid tree is guaranteed by tuning a threshold parameter. Extensive computational comparisons on 19 publicly available datasets indicate that the proposed method achieves significant speedup when compared to SVMs, without any compromise in classification accuracy.
TL;DR: An improved version of one-against-all method for multiclass SVM classification based on subset sample selection, named reduced one- against-all, to achieve high performance in large multiclass problems is presented.
Abstract: We present an improved version of one-against-all method for multiclass SVM classification based on subset sample selection, named reduced one-against-all, to achieve high performance in large multiclass problems. Reduced one-against-all drastically decreases the computing effort involved in training one-against-all classifiers, without any compromise in classification accuracy. Computational comparisons on publicly available datasets indicate that the proposed method has comparable accuracy to that of conventional one-against-all method, but with an order of magnitude faster. On the largest dataset considered, reduced one-against-all method achieved 50% reduction in computing time over one-against-all method for almost the same classification accuracy. We further investigated reduced one-against-all with linear kernel for multi-label text categorization applications. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on both the text corpuses considered.
TL;DR: Outcome of the experiments partly support Rifkin and Klautau's (2004) statement that, for small scale unilabel text categorization tasks, if parameters of the classifiers are well tuned, one-against-all will have better performance than one- against-one and other methods.
Abstract: Multiclass support vector machine (SVM) methods are well studied in recent literature Comparison studies on UCI/statlog multiclass datasets suggest using one-against-one method for multiclass SVM classification However, in unilabel (multiclass) text categorization with SVMs, no comparison studies exist with one-against-one and other methods, eg one-against-all and several well-known improvements to these approaches In this paper, we bridge this gap by performing empirical comparison of standard one-against-all and one-against-one, together with three improvements to these standard approaches for unilabel text categorization with SVM as base binary learner We performed all our experiments on three standard text corpuses using two types of document representation Outcome of our experiments partly support Rifkin and Klautau's (2004) statement that, for small scale unilabel text categorization tasks, if parameters of the classifiers are well tuned, one-against-all will have better performance than one-against-one and other methods
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).
TL;DR: It is pointed out that the primal problem can also be solved efficiently for both linear and nonlinear SVMs and that there is no reason for ignoring this possibility.
Abstract: Most literature on support vector machines (SVMs) concentrates on the dual optimization problem. In this letter, we point out that the primal problem can also be solved efficiently for both linear and nonlinear SVMs and that there is no reason for ignoring this possibility. On the contrary, from the primal point of view, new families of algorithms for large-scale SVM training can be investigated.
TL;DR: Basic decision tree issues and current research points are described, guiding the researcher in interesting research directions and suggesting possible bias combinations that have yet to be explored.
Abstract: Decision tree techniques have been widely used to build classification models as such models closely resemble human reasoning and are easy to understand. This paper describes basic decision tree issues and current research points. Of course, a single article cannot be a complete review of all algorithms (also known induction classification trees), yet we hope that the references cited will cover the major theoretical issues, guiding the researcher in interesting research directions and suggesting possible bias combinations that have yet to be explored.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a detailed analysis of such optimum sizing approaches in the literature that can make significant contributions to wider renewable energy penetration by enhancing the system applicability in terms of economy.
Abstract: Public awareness of the need to reduce global warming and the significant increase in the prices of conventional energy sources have encouraged many countries to provide new energy policies that promote the renewable energy applications. Such renewable energy sources like wind, solar, hydro based energies, etc. are environment friendly and have potential to be more widely used. Combining these renewable energy sources with back-up units to form a hybrid system can provide a more economic, environment friendly and reliable supply of electricity in all load demand conditions compared to single-use of such systems. One of the most important issues in this type of hybrid system is to optimally size the hybrid system components as sufficient enough to meet all load requirements with possible minimum investment and operating costs. There are many studies about the optimization and sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems since the recent popular utilization of renewable energy sources. In this concept, this paper provides a detailed analysis of such optimum sizing approaches in the literature that can make significant contributions to wider renewable energy penetration by enhancing the system applicability in terms of economy.
TL;DR: A brief introduction of SVMs is provided, many applications are described and challenges and trends are summarized, especially in the some fields.
Abstract: In recent years, an enormous amount of research has been carried out on support vector machines (SVMs) and their application in several fields of science. SVMs are one of the most powerful and robust classification and regression algorithms in multiple fields of application. The SVM has been playing a significant role in pattern recognition which is an extensively popular and active research area among the researchers. Research in some fields where SVMs do not perform well has spurred development of other applications such as SVM for large data sets, SVM for multi classification and SVM for unbalanced data sets. Further, SVM has been integrated with other advanced methods such as evolve algorithms, to enhance the ability of classification and optimize parameters. SVM algorithms have gained recognition in research and applications in several scientific and engineering areas. This paper provides a brief introduction of SVMs, describes many applications and summarizes challenges and trends. Furthermore, limitations of SVMs will be identified. The future of SVMs will be discussed in conjunction with further applications. The applications of SVMs will be reviewed as well, especially in the some fields.