Bio: M. Jindal is an academic researcher from Thapar University. The author has contributed to research in topics: NOx & Diesel engine. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 25 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of n-butanol in biodiesel-diesel blends on the performance and emissions characteristics of a constant speed, direct injection diesel engine were evaluated.
Abstract: Experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of n-butanol in biodiesel–diesel blends on the performance and emissions characteristics of a constant speed, direct injection diesel engine. The biodiesel–diesel blends were B20, B40 and B60 and the diesel–biodiesel–n-butanol blends were D80–B10–nBu10 and D60–B20–nBu20 on a volume basis. The performance parameters evaluated were brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake power (BP). Emission characteristics including carbon monoxide (CO), un-burnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) with different blend ratios were also monitored. All the tests were performed at a constant speed of 1500 rpm and at different load conditions. At full load conditions, the results showed that nBu10 when compared to B0 increased the BSFC by 38.3% and the HC content by 19.9%. In addition, CO emissions were reduced by 22.53%, while NOx emissions increased by 3.6%. In view of reduction in exhaust emissions and comparable engine performance, n-butanol may be used along with biodiesel–diesel blends in a conventional diesel engine without any modification.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of diesel, rice bran biodiesel and n-butanol on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine was investigated using a single stage transesterification process.
Abstract: Due to the depletion of petroleum products and fatal emissions from the tailpipe of diesel engines it has become a need to seek for the alternative of petroleum products for long-term use. Currently, researchers and experts have come to the conclusion that biodiesel along with higher alcohols can be an appropriate substitute for this situation. Former investigations have presented that biodiesel and higher alcohol can help in improving the performance and depreciating harmful exhaust gases in a diesel engine. In the current investigation blends of diesel, rice bran biodiesel and n-butanol were prepared to check its effect on performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine. Biodiesel was prepared by single stage alkaline transesterification process in this study and after that blends of diesel–biodiesel and diesel–biodiesel-n butanol were prepared as B10, B20, B10 nb10 and B20 nb20. Then these blends were tested in a single cylinder, small utility diesel engine with a rated power output of 3.73 kW to compare them with baseline diesel. Experimental investigation demonstrates that blends of rice bran biodiesel and n-butanol can be used as a fuel in a diesel engine without any change in the engine.
TL;DR: In this article, the feasibility of using bioethanol and biodiesels in diesel engines was evaluated and the physicochemical properties of these fuels were evaluated. But the use of biodiesel-bioethanol-petroleum diesel blends poses a challenge with regards to improving the compatibility of the materials with the fuel system in compression ignition (CI) and spark ignition (SI) engines.
Abstract: The realization of declining fossil fuel supplies and the adverse impact of fossil fuels on the environment has accelerated research and development activities in renewable energy sources and technologies. Biofuels are renewable fuels made from edible, non-edible or waste oils, as well as animal fats and algae, and these fuels have been proven to be good substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Bioethanol and biodiesels have gained worldwide attention in order to address environmental issues associated with fossil fuels, provide energy security, reduce imports and rural employment, as well as improve agricultural economy. Bioethanol has high oxygen content and octane content up to 35% and 108, respectively and hence, it increases oxygenation and improves combustion of fuel. In addition, bioethanol has lower vaporization pressure, which reduces the risks associated with evaporative emissions. In contrast, biodiesel has good lubricity, which helps protect the surface of engine components from wear and friction. The use of biodiesel–bioethanol–petroleum diesel blends poses a greater challenge with regards to improving the compatibility of the materials with the fuel system in compression ignition (CI) and spark ignition (SI) engines. In this work, the technical conditions of an engine (i.e. engine deposits, wear of the engine components and quality of the lubrication oil) are assessed by the application of with biodiesel–bioethanol–petroleum diesel blends. It is deemed important to evaluate the effects of using bioethanol and biodiesels in diesel engines. This paper provides insight on the feasibility of biodiesel and bioethanol feedstocks, the compatibility of biodiesels, bioethanol and their blends with diesel engines as well as the physicochemical properties of these fuels.
TL;DR: In this article, an attempt has been made to introduce exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) under compressed natural gas (CNG) fuelled diesel engine using Jatropha biodiesel (B20) blend as pilot fuel.
Abstract: Dwindling fossil fuel resources and deteriorating ambient air quality has mandate the search for suitable alternative fuels for diesel engine. Dual fuel engines show remarkable engine performance characteristics at higher engine loads but suffer from high NOx-smoke opacity emissions trade-off. In the present study, an attempt has been made to introduce exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) under compressed natural gas (CNG) fuelled diesel engine using Jatropha biodiesel (B20) blend as pilot fuel. Experimental investigations were carried out in a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine, which was suitably modified to operate under dual fuel mode along with EGR. Comparative analysis was made on the basis of combustion, performance and emissions characteristics at different engine operating loads for fossil diesel, CNG and biodiesel blend (B20) with and without EGR. It was evident from the experimental investigations that dual fuel mode with EGR improved the NOx-smoke emission trade-off at higher engine loads without deteriorating engine combustion and performance characteristics.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of variable compression ratio (16:1, 17:1 and 18:1) on various engine characteristics by fuelling 20% palm biodiesel blending compression ignition engine was investigated.
Abstract: Limited fossil fuel reserves led to focus on alternatives fuels for combustion engines. Several studies reported optimal (20%) biodiesel blend for utility in compression ignition engine at constant compression ratio. Literature lacks on the study of palm-based biodiesel in blended form at varying engine compression ratios. In this study, an initiative was undertaken to study the effect of variable compression ratio (16:1, 17:1 and 18:1) on various engine characteristics by fuelling 20% palm biodiesel blending compression ignition engine. The ignition delay period decreased, whereas the peak cylinder pressure and brake thermal efficiency increased with increase in the engine compression ratio from 16:1 to 18:1. At 3.5 bar bmep, brake thermal efficiency values were observed to be 28.9, 30.8 and 33.8% at 16:1, 17:1 and 18:1 CRs, respectively in B20 fuel. Moreover, increasing compression ratio from 16:1 to 18:1, the average reduction in emissions of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity were observed to be 47.8, 41.0 and 35.7%, respectively whereas, oxides of nitrogen emissions increased by 41.1%. Thus, it is inferred that B20 fuel performed well at high engine compression ratio.
TL;DR: In this article, three ternary blends were selected based on the stability tests and prepared with an objective to substitute diesel by 50% with up to 45% recycled component (WCO) and up to 20% bio-component (n-pentanol) by volume.
Abstract: Yellow grease from restaurants is typically waste cooking oil (WCO) that is free from suspended food particles and with free fatty acid (FFA) content less than 15%. This study proposes an approach to formulate a renewable, eco-friendly fuel by recycling WCO with diesel (D) and n-pentanol (P) to improve fuel-spray characteristics. Three ternary blends (D50-WCO45-P5, D50-WCO40-P10 and D50-WCO30-P20) were selected based on the stability tests and prepared with an objective to substitute diesel by 50% with up to 45% recycled component (WCO) and up to 20% bio-component (n-pentanol) by volume. The fuel properties of these ternary blends were measured and compared. The effect of these blends on combustion, performance and emissions of a stationary DI diesel engine was analyzed in comparison with diesel and D50-WCO50 (50% of diesel + 50% of WCO) with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Results indicated that addition of n-pentanol showed improved fuel properties when compared to D50-WCO50. While viscosity reduced up to 45%, cetane number and density were comparable to that of diesel. Addition of n-pentanol to D50-WCO50 presented improved brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for all ternary blends. BSFC of the blend D50-WCO30-P20 was 8.8% higher than diesel at high engine load without EGR. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for D50-WCO30-P20 blend is comparable to diesel due to improved atomization. However it deteriorated by up to 15.7% at 30% EGR. Smoke opacity reduced by up to 13.6% for D50-WCO30-P20 blend without EGR at high engine load. But it aggravated up to 73% at 30% EGR for D50-WCO30-P20 blend. NOx emission increased with increase in n-pentanol content in D50-WCO50 but remained lower than diesel. However increasing n-pentanol content beyond 20% may increase NOx emissions higher than diesel. NOx can be decreased three-fold using EGR. HC emissions increased and CO emissions remained unchanged with increasing n-pentanol in the blends. By adopting this approach, WCO can be effectively reused as a clean energy source by negating environmental hazards before and after its use in diesel engines, instead of being dumped into sewers and landfills.