M. Lawanya Shri
Bio: M. Lawanya Shri is an academic researcher from VIT University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Blockchain & Data security. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 2 publications receiving 8 citations.
TL;DR: This article has mentioned some of the significant challenges faced by the cloud and proposed solutions by integrating it with blockchain technology, and developed architecture integrating blockchain with cloud revealing the communication between blockchain and cloud.
Abstract: Blockchain technology is a distributed ledger with records of data containing all details of the transactions carried out and distributed among the nodes present in the network. All the transactions carried out in the system are confirmed by consensus mechanisms, and the data once stored cannot be altered. Blockchain technology is the necessary technology behind Bitcoin, which is a popular digital Cryptocurrency. “Cloud computing is a practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer.” It is still facing many challenges like data security, data management, compliance, reliability. In this article, we have mentioned some of the significant challenges faced by the cloud and proposed solutions by integrating it with blockchain technology. We tend to investigate a brief survey on earlier studies focused on blockchain integrating with the cloud to depict their supremacy. In this survey, we have also developed architecture integrating blockchain with cloud revealing the communication between blockchain and cloud.
01 Apr 2021
TL;DR: In this paper, the integration of blockchain and artificial intelligence (AI) would help in data analysis, creating quality assured smart contracts, and facilitating personalized treatment plans in the healthcare industry.
Abstract: Blockchain technology and artificial intelligence (AI) are proving their worth individually in the field of the healthcare industry. Blockchain is an emerging technology and well known for its valid data and security. The blockchain data structures are well structured to retrieve data easily and it stores data in a decentralized way. It provides the facility to automate tasks using smart contracts and it logs all the transactions in the ledger. But the blockchain cannot assure the smart contract quality and cannot detect data behaving maliciously. Blockchain challenges can be overcome with the help of AI. AI provides intelligence through decision making throughalgorithms. AI trains machines with the help of data to predict outcomes using various machine-learning algorithms. Blockchain helps to provide great quality data for these algorithms. In this fast-growing world, there are data-hungry applications, especially the healthcare industry, that need data with high security and privacy. In this chapter we provide information on how the integration of blockchain and AI would help in data analysis, creating quality assured smart contracts, and facilitating personalized treatment plans in the healthcare industry.
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of mainstream consensus protocols such as Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS), Proof of Activity (PoA) and Proof of Work (PoW) is presented in this article.
Abstract: As Blockchain innovation picks up popularity in many areas, it is frequently hailed as a sound innovation. Because of the decentralization and encryption, many imagine that data put away in a Blockchain is and will consistently be protected. Among various abstraction layers of Blockchain architecture, the consensus layer is the core component behind the performance and security measures of the Blockchain network. Consensus mechanisms are a critical component of a Blockchain system’s long-term stability. Consensus forms the core of blockchain technology. Therefore, a range of consensus protocols has been introduced to maximize Blockchain systems’ efficiency and meet application domains’ individual needs. This research paper describes the layered architecture of Blockchain. A comprehensive review of mainstream consensus protocols mainly Proof of Work (PoW), Proof of Stake (PoS), Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS), Proof of Activity (PoA) is presented in the paper. These mainstream consensus protocols have been explained and detailed performance analysis of these consensus protocols has been done. We have proposed a performance matrix of these consensus protocols based on different parameters like Degree of decentralization, Latency, Fault Tolerance Rate, Scalability, etc. Consensus protocols being the core of a strong fault-tolerant secured blockchain system, the proposed work intends to help inappropriate protocol selection and further research on strengthening trust and ownership in the technology. Depending upon different parameters like decentralization which is low in POA compared to other protocols, whereas POW is non-scalable, so depending on the priority of a particular performance parameter, the paper will help in the selection of a specific protocol.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce a quantitative framework to analyze the security and performance implications of various consensus and network parameters of PoW blockchains, and devise optimal adversarial strategies for double-spending and selfish mining.
Abstract: Proof of Work (PoW) powered blockchains currently account for more than 90% of the total market capitalization of existing digital cryptocurrencies. Although the security provisions of Bitcoin have been thoroughly analysed, the security guarantees of variant (forked) PoW blockchains (which were instantiated with different parameters) have not received much attention in the literature. This opens the question whether existing security analysis of Bitcoin's PoW applies to other implementations which have been instantiated with different consensus and/or network parameters. In this paper, we introduce a novel quantitative framework to analyse the security and performance implications of various consensus and network parameters of PoW blockchains. Based on our framework, we devise optimal adversarial strategies for double-spending and selfish mining while taking into account real world constraints such as network propagation, different block sizes, block generation intervals, information propagation mechanism, and the impact of eclipse attacks. Our framework therefore allows us to capture existing PoW-based deployments as well as PoW blockchain variants that are instantiated with different parameters, and to objectively compare the tradeoffs between their performance and security provisions.
TL;DR: In this article , the authors present an extensive literature review of the selected articles to highlight the current research themes in blockchain-based healthcare systems, and a discussion section provides insight into the limitations, challenges and future research directions.
Abstract: In the recent years, blockchain technology has gained significant attention in the healthcare sector. It has the potential to alleviate a wide variety of major difficulties in electronic health record systems. This study presents an elaborate overview of the existing research works on blockchain applications in the healthcare industry. This paper evaluates 144 articles that discuss the importance and limits of using blockchain technologies to improve healthcare operations. The objective is to demonstrate the technology’s potential uses and highlight the difficulties and possible sectors for future blockchain research in the healthcare domain. The paper starts with an extensive background study of blockchain and its features. Then, the paper focuses on providing an extensive literature review of the selected articles to highlight the current research themes in blockchain-based healthcare systems. After that, major application areas along with the solutions provided by blockchain in healthcare systems are pointed out. Finally, a discussion section provides insight into the limitations, challenges and future research directions.
••21 Jun 2021
TL;DR: In this paper, a highway construction case study is used for demonstrating the implementation of smart contracts for managing tasks and processes across different disciplines involved in a construction project, where BIM and blockchain can be used to facilitate the establishment and implementation of Digital Twins for construction projects.
Abstract: The digitalization of the construction industry has been supported recently with various building information modelling (BIM) methods applied to lifecycle stages. This has enabled the transition towards an improved management of information required in the development of different construction project tasks. In a digital construction context, traceability of models and collaboration across disciplines is required especially when dealing with sensitive data and critical infrastructures. Blockchain technology has the potential to advance the automation of processes in the construction industry by offering a higher level of data traceability, incentivising participation, and ensuring transparency with projects. This paper presents how BIM and Blockchain can be utilised to facilitate the establishment and implementation of Digital Twins for construction projects. A highway construction case study is used for demonstrating the implementation of smart contracts for managing tasks and processes across different disciplines involved in a construction project.
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors proposed an improved Proof-of-Authority (PoA) consensus algorithm that will increase trust in a decentralized supply chain (SC) model using blockchain technology.
Abstract: The profitability of a supply chain (SC) is proportional to the stability of all its stakeholders as well as their consistent information sharing with an effective and efficient communication mechanism. Various inefficiencies, such as bullwhip effect (BWE) and product unavailability, may be caused by lack of coordination in a SC. The importance of sharing consumer demand has been quantified by comprehensive studies, under the assumption that all SC participants will access the same information. However, only a few studies have studied the effect of minimal coordination or limited visibility of information, while considering their effect on the overall efficiency of a SC. This work primarily leverages blockchain technology (BCT) to create a simulation model. To do this, a SC bullwhip effect base model is initially developed. Following that, a blockchain-based robust information sharing system is simulated. Furthermore, information sharing is challenging and SC stakeholders may not really trust each other and hence be reluctant to share sensitive information. Considering that, this paper proposed an improved Proof-of-Authority (PoA) consensus algorithm that will increase trust in a decentralized SC model. Multiple experiments are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach and the simulation results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of information sharing in a supply chain via blockchain (BC), as well as that trust between partners tends to increase overall SC efficiency and reduce BWE.