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Author

M. M

Bio: M. M is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Metamaterial & Medicine. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 7 publications receiving 64 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a novel shaped metamaterial sensor is presented for the recognition of various oils, fluids, and chemicals using microwave frequency, and the performance of the designed sensor structure has been studied both theoretically and experimentally, and it works well.
Abstract: In this article, a novel shaped metamaterial sensor is presented for the recognition of various oils, fluids, and chemicals using microwave frequency. The performance of the designed sensor structure has been studied both theoretically and experimentally, and it works well. A new sample holder for convenient operation is created and located just behind the designed structure. The results of this study performed better than those of prior liquids sensing studies. Various designs were explored using the Genetic Algorithm (GA), and it is embedded in the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) microwave studio, to optimize the optimal dimensions of the resonator. The suggested metamaterial sensor has a good-quality factor and sensitivity in both frequency shifting and amplitude changing. The resonance frequency shifted to 100 MHz between olive and corn oils, 70 MHz between sunflower and palm oils, 80 MHz between clean and waste brake fluids, and 90 MHz between benzene and carbon-tetrachloride chemicals. The quality factor of the sensor is 135, sensitivity is 0.56, and the figure of merit is 76 which expresses its efficient performance. Furthermore, the proposed sensor can sensitively distinguish different liquids by using the frequency shifting property. The study was carried out in three stages: dielectric constant (DK) measurement with the N1500A dielectric measurement kit, simulation of the structure, and experimental test study with the vector network analyzer. Since the recommended sensor has high sensitivity, good quality factor, and excellent performance, hence it can be used in chemical, oil, and microfluidic industries for detecting various liquid samples.

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a cubic cross-shaped four-layer metamaterial absorber (MA) structure was proposed for wideband visible and infrared applications, which achieved above 80% absorption in both visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum with an overall unit cell size of 0.57λ × 0.59λ.
Abstract: The visible and infrared wavelengths are the most frequently used electromagnetic (EM) waves in the frequency spectrum; able to penetrate the atmosphere and reach Earth’s surface. These wavelengths have attracted much attention in solar energy harvesting; thermography; and infrared imaging applications for the detection of electrical failures; faults; or thermal leakage hot spots and inspection of tapped live energized components. This paper presents a numerical analysis of a compact cubic cross-shaped four-layer metamaterial absorber (MA) structure by using a simple metal-dielectric-metal-dielectric configuration for wideband visible and infrared applications. The proposed MA achieved above 80% absorption in both visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum from 350 to 1250 nm wavelength with an overall unit cell size of 0.57λ × 0.57λ × 0.59λ. The SiO2 based anti-reflection coating of sandwiched tungsten facilitates to achieve the wide high absorption bandwidth. The perceptible novelty of the proposed metamaterial is to achieve an average absorptivity of 95.3% for both visible and infrared wavelengths with a maximum absorptivity of 98% from 400 nm to 900 nm. Furthermore, the proposed structure provides polarization insensitivity with a higher oblique incidence angle tolerance up to 45°.

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a symmetric split ring resonator (SRR) based metamaterial (MTM) is presented that exhibits three resonances of transmission coefficient (S21) covering S, C, and X-bands with epsilon negative (ENG) and near zero index properties.
Abstract: In this article, a symmetric split ring resonator (SRR) based metamaterial (MTM) is presented that exhibits three resonances of transmission coefficient (S21) covering S, C, and X-bands with epsilon negative (ENG) and near zero index properties. The proposed MTM is designed on an FR4 substrate with the copper resonator at one side formed with two square rings and one circular split ring. The two square rings are coupled together around the split gap of the outer ring, whereas two split semicircles are also coupled together near the split gaps. Thus, gap coupled symmetric SRR is formed, which helps to obtain resonances at 2.78 GHz, 7.7 GHz and 10.16 GHz with desired properties of the MTM unit cell. The MTM unit cell's symmetric nature helps reduce the mutual coupling effect among the array elements. Thus, different array of unit cells provides a similar response to the unit cell compared with numerical simulation performed in CST microwave studio and validated by measurement. The equivalent circuit is modelled for the proposed MTM unit cell in Advanced Design System (ADS) software, and circuit validation is accomplished by comparing S21 obtained in ADS with the same of CST. The effective medium ratio (EMR) of 10.7 indicates the compactness of the proposed MTM. A test antenna is designed to observe the effect of the MTM over it. Numerical analysis shows that the proposed MTM have an impact on the antenna when it is used as the superstrate and helps to increase the gain of the antenna by 95% with increased directivity. Thus, compact size, high EMR, negative permittivity, near zero permeability and refractive index makes this MTM suitable for S, C and X band applications, especially for antenna gain with directivity enhancement.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a novel shaped metamaterial sensor is presented for the recognition of various oils, fluids, and chemicals using microwave frequency, and the performance of the designed sensor structure has been studied both theoretically and experimentally, and it works well.
Abstract: In this article, a novel shaped metamaterial sensor is presented for the recognition of various oils, fluids, and chemicals using microwave frequency. The performance of the designed sensor structure has been studied both theoretically and experimentally, and it works well. A new sample holder for convenient operation is created and located just behind the designed structure. The results of this study performed better than those of prior liquids sensing studies. Various designs were explored using the Genetic Algorithm (GA), and it is embedded in the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) microwave studio, to optimize the optimal dimensions of the resonator. The suggested metamaterial sensor has a good-quality factor and sensitivity in both frequency shifting and amplitude changing. The resonance frequency shifted to 100 MHz between olive and corn oils, 70 MHz between sunflower and palm oils, 80 MHz between clean and waste brake fluids, and 90 MHz between benzene and carbon-tetrachloride chemicals. The quality factor of the sensor is 135, sensitivity is 0.56, and the figure of merit is 76 which expresses its efficient performance. Furthermore, the proposed sensor can sensitively distinguish different liquids by using the frequency shifting property. The study was carried out in three stages: dielectric constant (DK) measurement with the N1500A dielectric measurement kit, simulation of the structure, and experimental test study with the vector network analyzer. Since the recommended sensor has high sensitivity, good quality factor, and excellent performance, hence it can be used in chemical, oil, and microfluidic industries for detecting various liquid samples.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a square enclosed split-maze shaped metamaterial absorber is proposed for X and Ku band wireless applications, which is suitable for sensing, EM energy harvesting, EM coupling reduction, and antenna gain enhancement purposes.
Abstract: In this paper, a square enclosed split-maze shaped metamaterial absorber is proposed for X and Ku band wireless applications. Two square metal enclosures were introduced around the split-maze structure to make it rotational symmetric and thus insensitive to cross-polarization. The proposed absorber has shown maximum absorptions at 9.33 GHz, 12.83 GHz, 13.86 GHz, and 15.61 GHz with single negative value of permittivity. The absorber is insensitive to the incident angle of applied EM waves for normal and oblique incidence up to 180 degrees. In addition, it was proved co- & cross-polarization insensitive due to the symmetric structure of the patch. A comprehensive equivalent circuit analysis was done to explain the fundamental EM behaviour of the metamaterial structure, and the circuit outputs coincided with the simulation results. Finally, the metamaterial was measured for both unit cell, and the array after fabrication and simulation results were validated. The proposed MMA is suitable for wireless applications in devices, especially for sensing, EM energy harvesting, EM coupling reduction, and antenna gain enhancement purposes.

6 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a metamaterial absorber (MMA) was proposed for SAR reduction from 5G n78 mobile devices at 3.5 GHz, which is co-polarization insensitive at all possible incident angles to ensure absorption of unnecessary EM energies.
Abstract: Abstract Specific absorption rate (SAR) by next-generation 5G mobile devices has become a burning question among engineers worldwide. 5G communication devices will be famous worldwide due to high-speed data transceiving, IoT-based mass applications, etc. Many antenna systems are being proposed for such mobile devices, but SAR is found at a higher rate that requires reduced for human health. This paper presents a metamaterial absorber (MMA) for SAR reduction from 5G n78 mobile devices at 3.5 GHz. The MMA is co-polarization insensitive at all possible incident angles to ensure absorption of unnecessary EM energies obeying the Poynting theorem for energy conservation and thus ensuring smooth communication by the devices. The unit cell size of the absorber is 0.114 $$\lambda$$ λ making it design efficient for array implementation into mobile devices. This absorber has achieved a minimum of 33% reduction of SAR by applying to the 5G n78 mobile phone model, equivalent to SAR by GSM/LTE/UMTS band mobile phones and making it suitable for SAR reduction from next-generation 5G mobile devices.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a low-profile and application-targeted microwave metamaterial absorber with polarization and angle insensitivity was proposed by engineering the filling factor of the resonator of a hybrid frequency selective surface (FSS).
Abstract: In this paper, by engineering the filling factor of the resonator of a hybrid frequency selective surface (FSS), a low-profile and application-targeted microwave metamaterial absorber is proposed with polarization and angle insensitivity. The proposed hybrid FSS of the absorber on FR4 substrate comprises four identical concentric copper sub SRRs and a defected copper ground. The square-cut area at the center of the ground and the filling factor of the resonator were tuned to get desired absorption peaks at some IEEE defined frequencies at C and X bands, which any other available perfect metamaterial absorbers cannot obtain. The measurement of the array absorber in anechoic chamber and the equivalent circuit analysis has demonstrated that the filling factor engineering technique illustrated an efficient way to achieve maximum absorptivity with the negative refractive index for perfect absorptions at the desired frequencies. The Wide-angle and polarization insensitivity to both co- and cross-polar waves are described by numerical analysis and EM responses. The thickness and dimension of the unit cell at the lowest operating frequency are 0.022 λ and 0.22 λ , respectively, and make it subwavelength compact. Besides normal and oblique incidence up to 80° and 180°, respectively, the absorber showed similar performance for cross-polar waves with an average of 99.5% absorptivity at 4.196 GHz, 5.24 GHz, 8.632 GHz, 9.264 GHz, and 10.152 GHz. The absorber has the potential for real-life RCS reduction, stealth, and sensing applications at C and X band antenna, satellite, and fighter aircraft stealth systems.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , an ultrathin concentric hexagonal ring resonator (CHRR) metamaterial absorber was proposed for ultrawideband visible and infrared optical window applications.
Abstract: This article presents numerical analysis of an ultrathin concentric hexagonal ring resonator (CHRR) metamaterial absorber (MMA) for ultrawideband visible and infrared optical window applications. The proposed MMA exhibits an absorption of above 90% from 380 to 2500 nm and an average absorbance of 96.64% at entire operational bandwidth with a compact unit cell size of 66 × 66 nm2. The designed MMA shows maximum absorption of 99% at 618 nm. The absorption bandwidth of the MMA covers the entire visible and infrared optical windows. The nickel material has been used to design the top and bottom layer of MMA, where aluminium nitride (AlN) has been used as the substrate. The designed hexagonal MMA shows polarization-independent properties due to the symmetry of the design and a stable absorption label is also achieved for oblique incident angles up to 70 °C. The absorption property of hexagonal ring resonator MMA has been analyzed by design evaluation, parametric and various material investigations. The metamaterial property, surface current allocation, magnetic field and electric field have also been analyzed to explore the absorption properties. The proposed MMA has promising prospects in numerous applications like infrared detection, solar cells, gas detection sensors, imaging, etc.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a new reflected mirror rectangular split-ring resonator-shaped metamaterial sensor is proposed for the detection of materials and thickness of the materials and its size is 22.86 × 10.16 mm2.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2023-Sensors
TL;DR: In this article , the design, optimization, and calibration of multivariable resonators for microwave dielectric sensors is presented, and the optimized resonators are manufactured using a standard photolithographic technique and measured for fabrication tolerance.
Abstract: This paper presents the design, optimization, and calibration of multivariable resonators for microwave dielectric sensors. An optimization technique for the circular complementary split ring resonator (CC-SRR) and square complementary split ring resonator (SC-SRR) is presented to achieve the required transmission response in a precise manner. The optimized resonators are manufactured using a standard photolithographic technique and measured for fabrication tolerance. The fabricated sensor is presented for the high-resolution characterization of dielectric substrates and oil samples. A three-dimensional dielectric container is attached to the sensor and acts as a pool for the sample under test (SUT). In the presented technique, the dielectric substrates and oil samples can interact directly with the electromagnetic (EM) field emitted from the resonator. For the sake of sensor calibration, a relation between the relative permittivity of the dielectric samples and the resonant frequency of the sensor is established in the form of an inverse regression model. Comparisons with state-of-the-art sensors indicate the superiority of the presented design in terms of oil characterization reliability. The significant technical contributions of this work include the employment of the rigorous optimization of geometry parameters of the sensor, leading to its superior performance, and the development and application of the inverse-model-based calibration procedure.

5 citations