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M. Pappa

Bio: M. Pappa is an academic researcher from CMR Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Spectral efficiency & Channel state information. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 16 citations.

Papers
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Mar 2017
TL;DR: Estimating the channel parameters for conventional MIMO and massive MIMo based on training-based and blind channel estimation techniques wherein the performance of both is compared is compared.
Abstract: Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology is becoming mature in wireless communication systems. It has led to third and fourth generation wireless systems, which has been providing good range, reliability and higher data rates. For the increased demand of much higher data rates, coverage, spectral efficiency, capacity and reduced latency, the evolution of the next generation i.e., the fifth generation technology is necessary. Massive MIMO technology is one of the most promising solution for the above-mentioned challenge. In massive MIMO, the base station is incorporated with hundreds to thousands of antenna array wherein the degrees of freedom can be exploited and the energy can be efficiently used due to the fact that the extra antennas at the base station helps focus the energy into the smaller regions of space. To reap the benefits provided by the extra antennas, the channel information is necessary which makes it possible to have a reliable communication. Therefore, to acquire the channel knowledge, channel state information is required at the base station and estimating the channel parameters plays an important role. In this paper, we concentrate on estimating the channel parameters for conventional MIMO and massive MIMO based on training-based and blind channel estimation techniques wherein the performance of both is compared.

19 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Smart Eye Application as discussed by the authors is an augmented reality app for mobile devices that enables the in-situ 3D visualization of underground and inaccessible to the public archaeological sites and monuments.
Abstract: The Smart Eye Application is an augmented reality app for mobile devices that enables the in-situ 3D visualization of underground and inaccessible to the public archaeological sites and monuments. Accessibility to excavated archaeological sites and monuments is often hindered for reasons of preservation or urban development. Portable finds are transferred and, in some cases, exhibited in local museums, but the non-portable remains of ancient structures become eventually effaced from the landscape and the collective memory of local communities. The Smart Eye app provides an “x-ray” type view of excavation sites that have been backfilled and are now invisible. While common practice in heritage sites’ digital dissemination to the general public uses 2D or 3D reconstructions in augmented or virtual reality environments, the Smart Eye app presents archaeological remains in the shape and form they were found in by archaeologists supplemented with augmented reality markers that provide simplified textual and visual information aimed toward a non-scholarly public. The aim is to re-instate these heritage sites into the interactive relationship that people have with their landscape and their history. The present paper discusses the chaîne-opératoire of developing the app, from the acquisition of primary documentation data of the excavation sites to the methodology used for the production of the 3D models of the archaeological sites and the development of the app itself and the technical equipment used. Finally, we discuss the results of the preliminary evaluation of the application and future steps to improve it before final testing by the local communities where the archaeological sites are located.

1 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Jan 2023
TL;DR: In this article , a smart mat to clean the dust particles and provide water to clean wet debris particle from footwear is proposed based on the review, which is a sensor based dry dust removal and wet debris removal by using ATmega328P microcontroller.
Abstract: Washing footwear during the rainy season or when they become cumbersome due to dust/debris is time consuming. Its durability will be reduced if washed frequently. Based on the review, a smart mat to clean the dust particles and provide water to clean wet debris particle from footwear is proposed. This is a sensor based dry dust removal and wet debris removal by using ATmega328P microcontroller. This smart mat is operated by the power supply and by placing the foot on the smart mat to remove the debris/dust in bottom part of the footwear. Ultrasonic Sensor Module HC-SR04 -2 is used to detect the target (person). relav coil (5V) is used to operate switching mechanism. Air blower is used to blow out the sand and drv dust. Steel rod with brush activated bv DC motor through the simple gear train is used to suooIv water forciblv. The inlet and outlet facilities are used to provide water and remove dirt water. Smart cleaning matis designed to clean the debris/dirt stuck at the sole part of footwear to keep the interior environment clean and avoid slippery during walk on the floor. This makes the sole part of footwear clean and maintain a standard in every commercial and industrial sector by remaining hygiene. It is effective in commercial sites, hospitals, schools, colleges, public places, and homes. The proposed mat is effective against water, mud, oil and dirt out.
Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Jan 2023
TL;DR: A survey of the literature on NOMA in relation to the 5G communication network is provided in this article , where the user pairing and power allocation design for resource in the form of a non-convex optimization problem, allocation is presented.
Abstract: The development of 5G wireless communication systems will be significantly impacted by non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA’S), one of the newest and most promising multiple access technologies. A survey of the literature on NOMA in relation to the 5G communication network is provided in this study. It also offers a methodical way to examine the variations between NOMA and OMA. Mathematical equations are used to show a thorough description of the downlink system model. The user pairing and power allocation design for resource in the form of a non-convex optimization problem, allocation is presented. In general, there are no systematic methods for efficiently& effectively resolving challenges of this nature. Thus, according to the methodologies, resource allocation with reduced computing complexity is devised.

Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper discusses optimal and near-optimal detection principles specifically designed for the massive MIMO system such as detectors based on a local search, belief propagation and box detection, and presents recent advances of detection algorithms which are mostly based on machine learning or sparsity based algorithms.
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is a key technology to meet the user demands in performance and quality of services (QoS) for next generation communication systems. Due to a large number of antennas and radio frequency (RF) chains, complexity of the symbol detectors increased rapidly in a massive MIMO uplink receiver. Thus, the research to find the perfect massive MIMO detection algorithm with optimal performance and low complexity has gained a lot of attention during the past decade. A plethora of massive MIMO detection algorithms has been proposed in the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide insights on such algorithms to a generalist of wireless communications. We garner the massive MIMO detection algorithms and classify them so that a reader can find a distinction between different algorithms from a wider range of solutions. We present optimal and near-optimal detection principles specifically designed for the massive MIMO system such as detectors based on a local search, belief propagation and box detection. In addition, we cover detectors based on approximate inversion, which has gained popularity among the VLSI signal processing community due to their deterministic dataflow and low complexity. We also briefly explore several nonlinear small-scale MIMO (2-4 antenna receivers) detectors and their applicability in the massive MIMO context. In addition, we present recent advances of detection algorithms which are mostly based on machine learning or sparsity based algorithms. In each section, we also mention the related implementations of the detectors. A discussion of the pros and cons of each detector is provided.

262 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide insights on linear precoding algorithms for massive MIMO systems and discuss the performance and energy efficiency of the precoders. And they also present potential future directions of linear precoder algorithms.
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is playing a crucial role in the fifth generation (5G) and beyond 5G (B5G) communication systems. Unfortunately, the complexity of massive MIMO systems is tremendously increased when a large number of antennas and radio frequency chains (RF) are utilized. Therefore, a plethora of research efforts has been conducted to find the optimal precoding algorithm with lowest complexity. The main aim of this paper is to provide insights on such precoding algorithms to a generalist of wireless communications. The added value of this paper is that the classification of massive MIMO precoding algorithms is provided with easily distinguishable classes of precoding solutions. This paper covers linear precoding algorithms starting with precoders based on approximate matrix inversion methods such as the truncated polynomial expansion (TPE), the Neumann series approximation (NSA), the Newton iteration (NI), and the Chebyshev iteration (CI) algorithms. The paper also presents the fixed-point iteration-based linear precoding algorithms such as the Gauss-Seidel (GS) algorithm, the successive over relaxation (SOR) algorithm, the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm, and the Jacobi iteration (JI) algorithm. In addition, the paper reviews the direct matrix decomposition based linear precoding algorithms such as the QR decomposition and Cholesky decomposition (CD). The non-linear precoders are also presented which include the dirty-paper coding (DPC), Tomlinson-Harashima (TH), vector perturbation (VP), and lattice reduction aided (LR) algorithms. Due to the necessity to deal with a high consuming power by the base station (BS) with a large number of antennas in massive MIMO systems, a special subsection is included to describe the characteristics of the peak-to-average power ratio precoding (PAPR) algorithms such as the constant envelope (CE) algorithm, approximate message passing (AMP), and quantized precoding (QP) algorithms. This paper also reviews the machine learning role in precoding techniques. Although many precoding techniques are essentially proposed for a small-scale MIMO, they have been exploited in massive MIMO networks. Therefore, this paper presents the application of small-scale MIMO precoding techniques for massive MIMO. This paper demonstrates the precoding schemes in promising multiple antenna technologies such as the cell-free massive MIMO (CF-M-MIMO), beamspace massive MIMO, and intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs). In-depth discussion on the pros and cons, performance-complexity profile, and implementation solidity is provided. This paper also provides a discussion on the channel estimation and energy efficiency. This paper also presents potential future directions in massive MIMO precoding algorithms.

64 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study aims to provide a detailed review of cooperative communication among all the techniques and potential problems associated with the spectrum management that has been addressed with the possible solutions proposed by the latest researches.
Abstract: With an extensive growth in user demand for high throughput, large capacity, and low latency, the ongoing deployment of Fifth-Generation (5G) systems is continuously exposing the inherent limitations of the system, as compared with its original premises. Such limitations are encouraging researchers worldwide to focus on next-generation 6G wireless systems, which are expected to address the constraints. To meet the above demands, future radio network architecture should be effectively designed to utilize its maximum radio spectrum capacity. It must simultaneously utilize various new techniques and technologies, such as Carrier Aggregation (CA), Cognitive Radio (CR), and small cell-based Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet), high-spectrum access (mmWave), and Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (M-MIMO), to achieve the desired results. However, the concurrent operations of these techniques in current 5G cellular networks create several spectrum management issues; thus, a comprehensive overview of these emerging technologies is presented in detail in this study. Then, the problems involved in the concurrent operations of various technologies for the spectrum management of the current 5G network are highlighted. The study aims to provide a detailed review of cooperative communication among all the techniques and potential problems associated with the spectrum management that has been addressed with the possible solutions proposed by the latest researches. Future research challenges are also discussed to highlight the necessary steps that can help achieve the desired objectives for designing 6G wireless networks.

61 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Mar 2020-Entropy
TL;DR: Numerical results illustrate that the conjugate-gradient (CG) method is numerically robust and obtains the best performance with lowest number of multiplications and when the ratio between the user antennas and base station antennas is close to 1, iterative matrix inversion methods are not attaining a good detector’s performance.
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output (M-MIMO) is a substantial pillar in fifth generation (5G) mobile communication systems. Although the maximum likelihood (ML) detector attains the optimum performance, it has an exponential complexity. Linear detectors are one of the substitutions and they are comparatively simple to implement. Unfortunately, they sustain a considerable performance loss in high loaded systems. They also include a matrix inversion which is not hardware-friendly. In addition, if the channel matrix is singular or nearly singular, the system will be classified as an ill-conditioned and hence, the signal cannot be equalized. To defeat the inherent noise enhancement, iterative matrix inversion methods are used in the detectors' design where approximate matrix inversion is replacing the exact computation. In this paper, we study a linear detector based on iterative matrix inversion methods in realistic radio channels called QUAsi Deterministic RadIo channel GenerAtor (QuaDRiGa) package. Numerical results illustrate that the conjugate-gradient (CG) method is numerically robust and obtains the best performance with lowest number of multiplications. In the QuaDRiGA environment, iterative methods crave large n to obtain a pleasurable performance. This paper also shows that when the ratio between the user antennas and base station (BS) antennas ( β ) is close to 1, iterative matrix inversion methods are not attaining a good detector's performance.

16 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2019
TL;DR: Numerical results show that a detector based on approximate matrix inversion methods outperforms the detectors based on the AMP algorithm and it also requires less processing time compared to the GS and the SOR methods.
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is a promising technology to support high data rate in fifth generation (5G) wireless communications system. Design of massive MIMO detector is not a trivial task due to a large number of antennas. This paper studies a detector based on approximate matrix inversion methods, namely, the Gauss-Seidel (GS), the successive over relaxation (SOR), and the approximate message passing (AMP) algorithm. Numerical results show that a detector based on approximate matrix inversion methods outperforms the detector based on the AMP algorithm. In addition, the convergence rate of the AMP based detector is higher than others and it also requires less processing time compared to the GS and the SOR methods.

6 citations