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M. Rafidah

Bio: M. Rafidah is an academic researcher from Universiti Putra Malaysia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Composite material & Materials science. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 7 publications receiving 128 citations.

Papers
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TL;DR: In this paper, a review on the background of green composites (natural fibres and biopolymers), the manufacturing processes, potential applications in cross arm structures, and testing evaluations is presented.
Abstract: Recently, advanced technologies exploit materials from nonrenewable resources such as petroleum, natural gas, metal ores, and minerals. Since the depletion of these resources and environmental issues, it has brought attention to researchers to progress in the development of biodegradable materials from green composites. Most biofibres and biopolymers are obtained from agricultural waste products either from stem, leaf, stalk, or fruit. Nowadays, green composites with well-regulated life span have been widely discussed in numerous fields and applications. Some studies have shown that biofibres and biopolymers have comparable mechanical, thermal, and physical properties with glass fibre and other synthetic polymers. Thus, researchers are progressively narrowing down the development of green composite materials in many high strength applications, such as house deck and automotive components. This review focuses on the background of green composites (natural fibres and biopolymers), the manufacturing processes, potential applications in cross arm structures, and testing evaluations. This article also focuses on the specific current cross arm configurations and the pultrusion process to form squared hollow section beams. Many open issues and ideas for potential applications of green composites are analysed, and further emphases are given on the development of environmentally friendly material structures. Hence, the article is expected to deliver a state-of-art review on manufacturability and perspectives of natural fibre reinforced biopolymer composite cross arms for transmission towers.

75 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
23 May 2021-Polymers
TL;DR: In this article, the state-of-the-art flame resistance properties of metal/polymer composites for various industrial applications are reviewed. But the use of metals as additives in composites has captured the attention of researchers worldwide due to safety concern in consideration of people's life and public properties.
Abstract: Polymer composites filled with metal derivatives have been widely used in recent years, particularly as flame retardants, due to their superior characteristics, including high thermal behavior, low environmental degradation, and good fire resistance. The hybridization of metal and polymer composites produces various favorable properties, making them ideal materials for various advanced applications. The fire resistance performance of polymer composites can be enhanced by increasing the combustion capability of composite materials through the inclusion of metallic fireproof materials to protect the composites. The final properties of the metal-filled thermoplastic composites depend on several factors, including pore shape and distribution and morphology of metal particles. For example, fire safety equipment uses polyester thermoplastic and antimony sources with halogenated additives. The use of metals as additives in composites has captured the attention of researchers worldwide due to safety concern in consideration of people’s life and public properties. This review establishes the state-of-art flame resistance properties of metals/polymer composites for numerous industrial applications.

74 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of chemical treatment on the dynamic mechanical performance of kenaf cellulosic biocomposites remains unexplored based on the previous literature, the authors focus on the recent works on the influence of major chemical treatments used on Kenaf fibre, such as alkaline, silane and acetylation on fabricated biocomposition.
Abstract: Natural cellulosic fibres, such as kenaf, have potential for use as replacement of man-made fibres in polymeric composites. The rapid depletion of synthetic resources, such as petroleum, and the growing consciousness of global environmental problems related to synthetic products push toward the acceptance of natural fibres as biocomposite components. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a multipurpose hibiscus species used to make engineered wood, clothing, packing material, rope and twine. Kenaf is essentially made up of cellulose (about 70%), predicting its excellent mechanical performance. Kenaf fibres are chemically treated before mixing with other polymer resins to enhance their fibre properties. Based on the previous literature, the effect of chemical treatment on the dynamic mechanical performance of kenaf cellulosic biocomposites remains unexplored. The present review focuses on the recent works on the influence of major chemical treatments used on kenaf fibre, such as alkaline, silane and acetylation on fabricated biocomposites. The present review also unveils other chemical treatments (e.g. zein and amino acid) and combined treatments on the fibre to improve the biocomposites’ dynamic mechanical behaviour.

69 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comprehensive review of the thermal properties of sugar palm biocomposites for thermal applications, such as heat shields and engine components, is presented, which aims to guide all composite engineers, designers, manufacturers and users on the selection of suitable biopolymers for sugar palm composites.

38 citations


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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Feb 2021-Polymers
TL;DR: In this article, a state-of-the-art review on the influence of utilizing various natural fibers as an alternative material to Kevlar fabric for armor structure system is presented.
Abstract: Even though natural fiber reinforced polymer composites (NFRPCs) have been widely used in automotive and building industries, there is still a room to promote them to high-level structural applications such as primary structural component specifically for bullet proof and ballistic applications. The promising performance of Kevlar fabrics and aramid had widely implemented in numerous ballistic and bullet proof applications including for bullet proof helmets, vest, and other armor parts provides an acceptable range of protection to soldiers. However, disposal of used Kevlar products would affect the disruption of the ecosystem and pollutes the environment. Replacing the current Kevlar fabric and aramid in the protective equipment with natural fibers with enhanced kinetic energy absorption and dissipation has been significant effort to upgrade the ballistic performance of the composite structure with green and renewable resources. The vast availability, low cost and ease of manufacturing of natural fibers have grasped the attention of researchers around the globe in order to study them in heavy armory equipment and high durable products. The possibility in enhancement of natural fiber’s mechanical properties has led the extension of research studies toward the application of NFRPCs for structural and ballistic applications. Hence, this article established a state-of-the-art review on the influence of utilizing various natural fibers as an alternative material to Kevlar fabric for armor structure system. The article also focuses on the effect of layering and sequencing of natural fiber fabric in the composites to advance the current armor structure system.

157 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Apr 2021-Polymers
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the development and conducted studies on PLA-based natural fibre bio-composites over the last decade and present an outline of the present circumstance of natural fibre-reinforced PLA 3D printing, as well as its functions in 4D printing for applications of stimuli-responsive polymers.
Abstract: Over recent years, enthusiasm towards the manufacturing of biopolymers has attracted considerable attention due to the rising concern about depleting resources and worsening pollution. Among the biopolymers available in the world, polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the highest biopolymers produced globally and thus, making it suitable for product commercialisation. Therefore, the effectiveness of natural fibre reinforced PLA composite as an alternative material to substitute the non-renewable petroleum-based materials has been examined by researchers. The type of fibre used in fibre/matrix adhesion is very important because it influences the biocomposites’ mechanical properties. Besides that, an outline of the present circumstance of natural fibre-reinforced PLA 3D printing, as well as its functions in 4D printing for applications of stimuli-responsive polymers were also discussed. This research paper aims to present the development and conducted studies on PLA-based natural fibre bio-composites over the last decade. This work reviews recent PLA-derived bio-composite research related to PLA synthesis and biodegradation, its properties, processes, challenges and prospects.

136 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Mar 2021-Polymers
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a critical assessment of a surging class of composite materials and unveil the successful development associated with CNT-incorporated polymer composites, including single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced polymer composite composites.
Abstract: A novel class of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based nanomaterials has been surging since 1991 due to their noticeable mechanical and electrical properties, as well as their good electron transport properties. This is evidence that the development of CNT-reinforced polymer composites could contribute in expanding many areas of use, from energy-related devices to structural components. As a promising material with a wide range of applications, their poor solubility in aqueous and organic solvents has hindered the utilizations of CNTs. The current state of research in CNTs—both single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced polymer composites—was reviewed in the context of the presently employed covalent and non-covalent functionalization. As such, this overview intends to provide a critical assessment of a surging class of composite materials and unveil the successful development associated with CNT-incorporated polymer composites. The mechanisms related to the mechanical, thermal, and electrical performance of CNT-reinforced polymer composites is also discussed. It is vital to understand how the addition of CNTs in a polymer composite alters the microstructure at the micro- and nano-scale, as well as how these modifications influence overall structural behavior, not only in its as fabricated form but also its functionalization techniques. The technological superiority gained with CNT addition to polymer composites may be advantageous, but scientific values are here to be critically explored for reliable, sustainable, and structural reliability in different industrial needs.

133 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Jan 2021-Polymers
TL;DR: In this article, the possibility of using a natural fiber composite in sandwich structure applications is discussed. And the results and potential areas of improvement to fit into a wide range of engineering applications are discussed.
Abstract: The interest in using natural fiber reinforced composites is now at its highest. Numerous studies have been conducted due to their positive benefits related to environmental issues. Even though they have limitations for some load requirements, this drawback has been countered through fiber treatment and hybridization. Sandwich structure, on the other hand, is a combination of two or more individual components with different properties, which when joined together can result in better performance. Sandwich structures have been used in a wide range of industrial material applications. They are known to be lightweight and good at absorbing energy, providing superior strength and stiffness-to-weight ratios, and offering opportunities, through design integration, to remove some components from the core element. Today, many industries use composite sandwich structures in a range of components. Through good design of the core structure, one can maximize the strength properties, with a low density. However, the application of natural fiber composites in sandwich structures is still minimal. Therefore, this paper reviewed the possibility of using a natural fiber composite in sandwich structure applications. It addressed the mechanical properties and energy-absorbing characteristics of natural fiber-based sandwich structures tested under various compression loads. The results and potential areas of improvement to fit into a wide range of engineering applications were discussed.

132 citations