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M T S Nair

Bio: M T S Nair is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Deposition (phase transition) & Dark current. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 175 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a chemical deposition technique, much simpler and more versatile than previously reported and capable of yielding good quality SnS films of thickness up to approximately 1.2 mu m under a choice of deposition conditions, is presented.
Abstract: A chemical deposition technique, much simpler and more versatile than previously reported and capable of yielding good quality SnS films of thickness up to approximately=1.2 mu m under a choice of deposition conditions, is presented. The as-prepared films are polycrystalline with p-type dark conductivity in the range 10-5-10-4 Omega -1 cm-1 for the thicker ( approximately 1 mu m) films and showing a photocurrent to dark current ratio of 5-10 under 500 W m-2 tungsten halogen illumination. The optical transmittance and reflectance spectra and the photocurrent response curves of a series of SnS samples are explicitly presented to provide insight into possible applications of these films.

181 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors have described in detail, chemical bath deposition method of metal chalcogenide thin films, it is capable of yielding good quality thin films and their preparative parameters, structural, optical, electrical properties etc.

733 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a mixture of SnCl4 with H2S at 300−545 °C was used for the deposition of SnS2, SnS3, and SnSS3.
Abstract: Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of SnS2, Sn2S3, and SnS has been achieved onto glass substrates from the reaction of SnCl4 with H2S at 300−545 °C. The films show good uniformity and surface coverage, adherence, and a variety of colors (black, yellow, brown, and gray) dependent on deposition temperature and film thickness. Growth rates were on the order of 1−2 μm min-1. All the films were crystalline. For substrate temperatures of up to 500 °C single phase films with the hexagonal SnS2 structure (a = 3.65(1) A, c = 5.88(1) A) were formed. At 525 °C a film of mixed composition containing predominantly orthorhombic Sn2S3 (a = 8.83(1) A, b = 3.76(1) A, c = 14.03(1) A) was formed together with some SnS2. At 545 °C films with orthorhombic SnS structure (a = 4.30(1) A, b = 11.20(1) A, c = 3.99(1) A) were formed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a variety of different film thicknesses and morphologies, including needles, plates, and ovoids, dependent on the deposition temperature and tim...

381 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a single-phase tin monosulfide (SnS) film was obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using the reaction of bis(N,N′-diisopropylacetamidinato)tin(II) [Sn(MeC(N-iPr)2)2] and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at low temperatures (100 to 200 °C).
Abstract: Thin film solar cells made from earth-abundant, non-toxic materials are needed to replace the current technology that uses Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 and CdTe, which contain scarce and toxic elements. One promising candidate absorber material is tin monosulfide (SnS). In this report, pure, stoichiometric, single-phase SnS films were obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using the reaction of bis(N,N′-diisopropylacetamidinato)tin(II) [Sn(MeC(N-iPr)2)2] and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at low temperatures (100 to 200 °C). The direct optical band gap of SnS is around 1.3 eV and strong optical absorption (α > 104 cm−1) is observed throughout the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The films are p-type semiconductors with carrier concentration on the order of 1016 cm−3 and hole mobility 0.82–15.3 cm2V−1s−1 in the plane of the films. The electrical properties are anisotropic, with three times higher mobility in the direction through the film, compared to the in-plane direction.

378 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the synthesis and characterization of single-crystal tin sulfides (SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3) through chemical vapor transport, and combine electronic structure calculations with time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements to shed light on the underlying electrical properties of each material.
Abstract: Tin sulfide is being widely investigated as an earth-abundant light harvesting material, but recorded efficiencies for SnS fall far below theoretical limits. We describe the synthesis and characterization of the single-crystal tin sulfides (SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3) through chemical vapor transport, and combine electronic structure calculations with time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements to shed light on the underlying electrical properties of each material. We show that the coexistence of the Sn(II) and Sn(IV) oxidation states would limit the performance of SnS in photovoltaic devices due to the valence band alignment of the respective phases and the “asymmetry” in the underlying point defect behavior. Furthermore, our results suggest that Sn2S3, in addition to SnS, is a candidate material for low-cost thin-film solar cells.

369 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review looks beyond MAPI to other ns2 solar absorbers, with the aim of identifying those materials likely to achieve high efficiencies, and discusses the ideal properties essential to produce highly efficient solar cells.

358 citations