Madeleine J. Ball
Bio: Madeleine J. Ball is an academic researcher from RMIT University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Kidney disease & Saturated fat. The author has an hindex of 39, co-authored 123 publications receiving 3919 citations. Previous affiliations of Madeleine J. Ball include University of Tasmania & Deakin University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: An association between serum leptin levels and bone mass consistent with the hypothesis that circulating leptin may play a role in regulating bone mass is demonstrated.
Abstract: Both serum leptin and bone mineral density are positively correlated with body fat, generating the hypothesis that leptin may be a systemic and/or local regulator of bone mass. We investigated 214 healthy, nonobese Australian women aged 20-91 yr. Bone mineral content, projected bone area, and body fat mass were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and fasting serum leptin levels by RIA. Associations between bone mineral content (adjusted for age, body weight, body fat mass, and bone area) and the natural logarithm of serum leptin concentrations were analyzed by multiple regression techniques. There was a significant positive association at the lateral spine, two proximal femur sites (Ward's triangle and trochanter), and whole body (partial r(2) = 0.019 to 0.036; all P < 0.05). Similar trends were observed at the femoral neck and posterior-anterior-spine. With bone mineral density the dependent variable (adjusted for age, body weight, and body fat mass), the association with the natural logarithm of leptin remained significant at the lateral spine (partial r(2) = 0.030; P = 0.011), was of borderline significance at the proximal femur sites (partial r(2) = 0.012 to 0.017; P = 0.058 to 0.120), and was not significant at the other sites. Our results demonstrate an association between serum leptin levels and bone mass consistent with the hypothesis that circulating leptin may play a role in regulating bone mass.
TL;DR: In examining the effect of sex on the economic and social costs of micronutrient deficiencies, the paper found that there is also an urgent need for increased effort to demonstrate the cost of these deficiencies, as well as the benefits of addressing them, especially compared with other health and nutrition interventions.
Abstract: Vitamin and mineral deficiencies adversely affect a third of the world's people. Consequently, a series of global goals and a serious amount of donor and national resources have been directed at such micronutrient deficiencies. Drawing on the extensive experience of the authors in a variety of institutional settings, the article used a computer search of the published scientific literature of the topic, supplemented by reports and published and unpublished work from the various agencies. In examining the effect of sex on the economic and social costs of micronutrient deficiencies, the paper found that: (1) micronutrient deficiencies affect global health outcomes; (2) micronutrient deficiencies incur substantial economic costs; (3) health and nutrition outcomes are affected by sex; (4) micronutrient deficiencies are affected by sex, but this is often culturally specific; and finally, (5) the social and economic costs of micronutrient deficiencies, with particular reference to women and female adolescents and children, are likely to be considerable but are not well quantified. Given the potential impact on reducing infant and child mortality, reducing maternal mortality, and enhancing neuro-intellectual development and growth, the right of women and children to adequate food and nutrition should more explicitly reflect their special requirements in terms of micronutrients. The positive impact of alleviating micronutrient malnutrition on physical activity, education and productivity, and hence on national economies suggests that there is also an urgent need for increased effort to demonstrate the cost of these deficiencies, as well as the benefits of addressing them, especially compared with other health and nutrition interventions.
TL;DR: Current available evidence suggests antioxidant enzyme SNP genotypes are not useful for screening for diseases in humans, including breast cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Abstract: The presence and progression of numerous diseases have been linked to deficiencies in antioxidant systems The relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) arising from specific antioxidant enzymes and diseases associated with elevated oxidative stress have been studied with the rationale that they may be useful in screening for diseases The purpose of this narrative review is to analyse evidence from these studies The antioxidant enzyme SNPs selected for analysis are based on those most frequently investigated in relation to diseases in humans: superoxide dismutase (SOD2) Ala16Val (80 studies), glutathione peroxidise (GPx1) Pro197Leu (24 studies) and catalase C-262T (22 studies) Although the majority of evidence supports associations between the SOD2 Ala16Val SNP and diseases such as breast, prostate and lung cancers, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the presence of the SOD2 Ala16Val SNP confers only a small, clinically insignificant reduction (if any) in the risk of these diseases Other diseases such as bladder cancer, liver disease, nervous system pathologies and asthma have not been consistently related to this SOD SNP genotype The GPx1 Pro197Leu and catalase C-262T SNP genotypes have been associated with breast cancer, but only in a small number of studies Thus, currently available evidence suggests antioxidant enzyme SNP genotypes are not useful for screening for diseases in humans
TL;DR: Regular consumption of chili may attenuate postprandial hyperinsulinemia in women and may help to reduce obesity and related disorders.
Abstract: Background: Animal and some human studies have indicated that the consumption of chili-containing meals increases energy expenditure and fat oxidation, which may help to reduce obesity and related disorders. Because habitual diets affect the activity and responsiveness of receptors involved in regulating and transporting nutrients, the effects of regular consumption of chili on metabolic responses to meals require investigation. Objective: The objective was to investigate the metabolic effects of a chili-containing meal after the consumption of a bland diet and a chili-blend (30 g/d; 55% cayenne chili) supplemented diet. Design: Thirty-six subjects with a mean (+/-SD) age of 46 +/- 12 y and a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 26.3 +/- 4.6 participated in a randomized, crossover, intervention study with 2 dietary periods (chili and bland) of 4 wk each. The postprandial effects of a bland meal after a bland diet (BAB), a chili meal after a bland diet (CAB), and a chili meal after a chili-containing diet (CAC) were evaluated. Serum insulin, C-peptide, and glucose concentrations and energy expenditure (EE) were measured at fasting and up to 120 min postprandially. Results: Significant heterogeneity was observed between the meals for the maximum increase in insulin and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for insulin (P = 0.0002); the highest concentrations were with the BAB meal and the lowest with the CAC meal. When separated at the median BMI (26.3), the subjects with a BMI > or = 26.3 also showed heterogeneity in C-peptide, iAUC C-peptide, and net AUC EE (P < 0.02 for all); the highest values occurred after the BAB meal and the lowest after the CAC meal. Conversely, the C-peptide/insulin quotient (an indicator of hepatic insulin clearance) was highest after the CAC meal (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Regular consumption of chili may attenuate postprandial hyperinsulinemia.
TL;DR: It is important that both vegetarian and omnivorous women maintain an adequate iron status and follow dietary practices that enhance iron absorption.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Despite the possible overall health benefits of a vegetarian diet, there is concern that some vegetarians and infrequent meat eaters, particularly females, may have inadequate iron status because of low or no heme-iron intakes. OBJECTIVE The objective was to investigate the nutritional intake and iron status of vegetarian women. DESIGN The nutritional intakes of 50 free-living vegetarian women aged 18-45 y and 24 age-matched omnivorous control women were assessed by using 12-d weighed dietary records. Iron status was assessed by measuring hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. RESULTS There was no significant difference between mean (+/-SD) daily iron intakes of vegetarians and omnivores (10.7 +/- 4.4 and 9.9 +/- 2.9 mg, respectively), although heme-iron intakes were low in the vegetarians. Vegetarians had significantly lower intakes of protein (P < 0.01), saturated fat (P < 0.01), and cholesterol (P < 0.001), and significantly higher intakes of dietary fiber (P < 0.001) and vitamin C (P < 0.05). Mean serum ferritin concentrations were significantly lower (P = 0.025) in vegetarians (25.0 +/- 16.2 microg/L) than in omnivores (45.5 +/- 42.5 microg/L). However, similar numbers of vegetarians (18%) and omnivores (13%) had serum ferritin concentrations <12 microg/L, which is a value often used as an indicator of low iron stores. Hemoglobin concentrations were not significantly different. CONCLUSION It is important that both vegetarian and omnivorous women maintain an adequate iron status and follow dietary practices that enhance iron absorption.
TL;DR: The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in healthy adults is discussed in the position stand of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand.
Abstract: The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit from engaging in amounts of exercise less than recommended. In addition to exercising regularly, there are health benefits in concurrently reducing total time engaged in sedentary pursuits and also by interspersing frequent, short bouts of standing and physical activity between periods of sedentary activity, even in physically active adults. Behaviorally based exercise interventions, the use of behavior change strategies, supervision by an experienced fitness instructor, and exercise that is pleasant and enjoyable can improve adoption and adherence to prescribed exercise programs. Educating adults about and screening for signs and symptoms of CHD and gradual progression of exercise intensity and volume may reduce the risks of exercise. Consultations with a medical professional and diagnostic exercise testing for CHD are useful when clinically indicated but are not recommended for universal screening to enhance the safety of exercise.
TL;DR: It is suggested that if assessment of overdoses were left to house doctors there would be an increase in admissions to psychiatric units, outpatients, and referrals to social services, but for house doctors to assess overdoses would provide no economy for the psychiatric or social services.
Abstract: admission. This proportion could already be greater in some parts of the country and may increase if referrals of cases of self-poisoning increase faster than the facilities for their assessment and management. The provision of social work and psychiatric expertise in casualty departments may be one means of preventing unnecessary medical admissions without risk to the patients. Dr Blake's and Dr Bramble's figures do not demonstrate, however, that any advantage would attach to medical teams taking over assessment from psychiatrists except that, by implication, assessments would be completed sooner by staff working on the ward full time. What the figures actually suggest is that if assessment of overdoses were left to house doctors there would be an increase in admissions to psychiatric units (by 19°U), outpatients (by 5O°'), and referrals to social services (by 140o). So for house doctors to assess overdoses would provide no economy for the psychiatric or social services. The study does not tell us what the consequences would have been for the six patients who the psychiatrists would have admitted but to whom the house doctors would have offered outpatient appointments. E J SALTER
TL;DR: The features of the metabolic syndrome that emerge with estrogen deficiency are reviewed to aid in the recognition and treatment of women at risk for future CVD, leading to appropriate interventions.
Abstract: Women with the metabolic syndrome (central obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia) are known to be at especially high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increases with menopause and may partially explain the apparent acceleration in CVD after menopause. The transition from pre- to postmenopause is associated with the emergence of many features of the metabolic syndrome, including 1) increased central (intraabdominal) body fat; 2) a shift toward a more atherogenic lipid profile, with increased low density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels, reduced high density lipoprotein, and small, dense low density lipoprotein particles; 3) and increased glucose and insulin levels. The emergence of these risk factors may be a direct result of ovarian failure or, alternatively, an indirect result of the metabolic consequences of central fat redistribution with estrogen deficiency. It is unclear whether the transition to menopause increases CVD risk in all women or only those who develop features of the metabolic syndrome. This article will review the features of the metabolic syndrome that emerge with estrogen deficiency. A better understanding of these metabolic changes with menopause will aid in the recognition and treatment of women at risk for future CVD, leading to appropriate interventions. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88: 2404 –2411, 2003)
TL;DR: This 2002 technical review provides principles and recommendations classified according to the level of evidence available, and grades nutrition principles into four categories based on the available evidence: those with strong supporting evidence, those with some supporting evidence), those with limited supporting evidence and those based on expert consensus.
Abstract: Historically, nutrition principles and recommendations for diabetes and related complications have been based on scientific evidence and diabetes knowledge when available and, when evidence was not available, on clinical experience and expert consensus. Often it has been difficult to discern the level of evidence used to construct the nutrition principles and recommendations. Furthermore, in clinical practice, many nutrition recommendations that have no scientific supporting evidence have been and are still being given to individuals with diabetes. To address these problems and to incorporate the research done in the past 8 years, this 2002 technical review provides principles and recommendations classified according to the level of evidence available. It reviews the evidence from randomized, controlled trials; cohort and case-controlled studies; and observational studies, which can also provide valuable evidence (1,2), and takes into account the number of studies that have provided consistent outcomes of support. In this review, nutrition principles are graded into four categories based on the available evidence: those with strong supporting evidence, those with some supporting evidence, those with limited supporting evidence and those based on expert consensus. Evidence-based nutrition recommendations attempt to translate research data and clinically applicable evidence into nutrition care. However, the best available evidence must still be moderated by individual circumstances and preferences. The goal of evidence-based recommendations is to improve the quality of clinical judgments and facilitate cost-effective care by increasing the awareness of clinicians and patients with diabetes of the evidence supporting nutrition services and the strength of that evidence, both in quality and quantity. Before 1994, the American Diabetes Association’s (ADA’s) nutrition principles and recommendations attempted to define an “ideal” nutrition prescription that would apply to everyone with diabetes (3,4,5). Although individualization was a major principle of all recommendations, it was usually done within defined …
TL;DR: Emerging data shows that these biomarkers may differ between early and late stages of BD in parallel with stage-related structural and neurocognitive alterations, which facilitates identification of rational therapeutic targets, and the development of novel treatment classes.
Abstract: There is now strong evidence of progressive neuropathological processes in bipolar disorder (BD). On this basis, the current understanding of the neurobiology of BD has shifted from an initial focus on monoamines, subsequently including evidence of changes in intracellular second messenger systems and more recently to, incorporating changes in inflammatory cytokines, corticosteroids, neurotrophins, mitochondrial energy generation, oxidative stress and neurogenesis into a more comprehensive model capable of explaining some of the clinical features of BD. These features include progressive shortening of the inter-episode interval with each recurrence, occurring in consort with reduced probability of treatment response as the illness progresses. To this end, emerging data shows that these biomarkers may differ between early and late stages of BD in parallel with stage-related structural and neurocognitive alterations. This understanding facilitates identification of rational therapeutic targets, and the development of novel treatment classes. Additionally, these pathways provide a cogent explanation for the efficacy of seemingly diverse therapies used in BD, that appear to share common effects on oxidative, inflammatory and neurotrophic pathways.