Mahammad A. Hannan
Bio: Mahammad A. Hannan is an academic researcher from Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The author has contributed to research in topics: Control theory & State of charge. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 301 publications receiving 6543 citations. Previous affiliations of Mahammad A. Hannan include International Islamic University, Chittagong & National University of Malaysia.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of hybrid electric vehicle on their source combination, models, energy management system (EMS) etc. developed by various researchers is presented in this paper, where various types models and algorithms derived from simulation and experiment are explained in details.
Abstract: There are numbers of alternative energy resources being studied for hybrid vehicles as preparation to replace the exhausted supply of petroleum worldwide. The use of fossil fuel in the vehicles is a rising concern due to its harmful environmental effects. Among other sources battery, fuel cell (FC), super capacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cell i.e. solar are studied for vehicle application. Combinations of these sources of renewable energies can be applied for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) for next generation of transportation. Various aspects and techniques of HEV from energy management system (EMS), power conditioning and propulsion system are explored in this paper. Other related fields of HEV such as DC machine and vehicle system are also included. Various type models and algorithms derived from simulation and experiment are explained in details. The performances of the various combination of HEV system are summarized in the table along with relevant references. This paper provides comprehensive survey of hybrid electric vehicle on their source combination, models, energy management system (EMS) etc. developed by various researchers. From the rigorous review, it is observed that the existing technologies more or less can capable to perform HEV well; however, the reliability and the intelligent systems are still not up to the mark. Accordingly, this review have been lighted many factors, challenges and problems sustainable next generation hybrid vehicle.
TL;DR: This review will hopefully lead to increasing efforts toward the development of an advanced Li-ion battery in terms of economics, longevity, specific power, energy density, safety, and performance in vehicle applications.
Abstract: A variety of rechargeable batteries are now available in world markets for powering electric vehicles (EVs). The lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is considered the best among all battery types and cells because of its superior characteristics and performance. The positive environmental impacts and recycling potential of lithium batteries have influenced the development of new research for improving Li-ion battery technologies. However, the cost reduction, safe operation, and mitigation of negative ecological impacts are now a common concern for advancement. This paper provides a comprehensive study on the state of the art of Li-ion batteries including the fundamentals, structures, and overall performance evaluations of different types of lithium batteries. A study on a battery management system for Li-ion battery storage in EV applications is demonstrated, which includes a cell condition monitoring, charge, and discharge control, states estimation, protection and equalization, temperature control and heat management, battery fault diagnosis, and assessment aimed at enhancing the overall performance of the system. It is observed that the Li-ion batteries are becoming very popular in vehicle applications due to price reductions and lightweight with high power density. However, the management of the charging and discharging processes, CO2 and greenhouse gases emissions, health effects, and recycling and refurbishing processes have still not been resolved satisfactorily. Consequently, this review focuses on the many factors, challenges, and problems and provides recommendations for sustainable battery manufacturing for future EVs. This review will hopefully lead to increasing efforts toward the development of an advanced Li-ion battery in terms of economics, longevity, specific power, energy density, safety, and performance in vehicle applications.
TL;DR: An advanced ESS is required with regard to capacity, protection, control interface, energy management, and characteristics to enhance the performance of ESS in MG applications to develop a cost-effective and efficient ESS model with a prolonged life cycle for sustainable MG implementation.
Abstract: A microgrid (MG) is a local entity that consists of distributed energy resources (DERs) to achieve local power reliability and sustainable energy utilization. The MG concept or renewable energy technologies integrated with energy storage systems (ESS) have gained increasing interest and popularity because it can store energy at off-peak hours and supply energy at peak hours. However, existing ESS technology faces challenges in storing energy due to various issues, such as charging/discharging, safety, reliability, size, cost, life cycle, and overall management. Thus, an advanced ESS is required with regard to capacity, protection, control interface, energy management, and characteristics to enhance the performance of ESS in MG applications. This paper comprehensively reviews the types of ESS technologies, ESS structures along with their configurations, classifications, features, energy conversion, and evaluation process. Moreover, details on the advantages and disadvantages of ESS in MG applications have been analyzed based on the process of energy formations, material selection, power transfer mechanism, capacity, efficiency, and cycle period. Existing reviews critically demonstrate the current technologies for ESS in MG applications. However, the optimum management of ESSs for efficient MG operation remains a challenge in modern power system networks. This review also highlights the key factors, issues, and challenges with possible recommendations for the further development of ESS in future MG applications. All the highlighted insights of this review significantly contribute to the increasing effort toward the development of a cost-effective and efficient ESS model with a prolonged life cycle for sustainable MG implementation.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive survey of fuel cell-based hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) on their source combination, models, energy management system (EMS) etc.
Abstract: Emerging issues on fuel price and greenhouse gas emissions have attracted attention on the alternative energy sources, especially in transportation sector. The transportation sector accounts for 40% of total fuel consumption. Thus, an increasing number of studies have been conducted on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and their energy management system (EMS). This paper focuses on reviews of EMSs for fuel cell (FC) based HEV in combination with battery and super-capacitor, respectively. Various aspects and classifications of fuel cell–HEV EMS are explained in this paper. Different types of FC–HEV control models and algorithms derived from simulation and experiment are explained in details for an analytical justification for the most optimal control strategy. The performances of the various combinations of FC–HEV system are summarized in the table along with relevant references. This paper provides comprehensive survey of FC–HEV on their source combination, models, energy management system (EMS) etc. developed by various researchers. From the rigorous review, it is observed that the existing technologies more or less are capable to perform well; however, the reliability and the intelligent systems are still not up to the mark. Accordingly, current issues and challenges on the FC–HEV technologies are highlighted with a brief suggestions and discussion for the progress of future FC–HEV vehicle research. This review will hopefully lead to increasing efforts towards the development of economic, longer lifetime, hydrogen viable, efficient electronic interface and well performed EMS for future FC–HEV.
TL;DR: This review presents the recent SOC estimation methods highlighting the model-based and data-driven approaches and delivers potential recommendations for the development of SOC estimation method of lithium-ion battery in EV applications.
Abstract: Lithium-ion battery is an appropriate choice for electric vehicle (EV) due to its promising features of high voltage, high energy density, low self-discharge and long lifecycles. The successful operation of EV is highly dependent on the operation of battery management system (BMS). State of charge (SOC) is one of the vital paraments of BMS which signifies the amount of charge left in a battery. A good estimation of SOC leads to long battery life and prevention of catastrophe from battery failure. Besides, an accurate and robust SOC estimation has great significance towards an efficient EV operation. However, SOC estimation is a complex process due to its dependency on various factors such as battery age, ambient temperature, and many unknown factors. This review presents the recent SOC estimation methods highlighting the model-based and data-driven approaches. Model-based methods attempt to model the battery behavior incorporating various factors into complex mathematical equations in order to accurately estimate the SOC while the data-driven methods adopt an approach of learning the battery's behavior by running complex algorithms with a large amount of measured battery data. The classifications of model-based and data-driven based SOC estimation are explained in terms of estimation model/algorithm, benefits, drawbacks, and estimation error. In addition, the review highlights many factors and challenges and delivers potential recommendations for the development of SOC estimation methods in EV applications. All the highlighted insights of this review will hopefully lead to increased efforts toward the enhancement of SOC estimation method of lithium-ion battery for the future high-tech EV applications.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
01 Jan 2015
01 Nov 2009
TL;DR: The hierarchical control derived from ISA-95 and electrical dispatching standards to endow smartness and flexibility to MGs is presented and results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Abstract: DC and AC Microgrids are key elements to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the last years, efforts toward the standardization of these Microgrids have been made. In this sense, this paper present the hierarchical control derived from ISA-95 and electrical dispatching standards to endow smartness and flexibility to microgrids. The hierarchical control proposed consist of three levels: i) the primary control is based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) the secondary control allows restoring the deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) the tertiary control manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system. Results from a hierarchical-controlled microgrid are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.
01 Nov 2000
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the power density characteristics of ultracapacitors and batteries with respect to the same charge/discharge efficiency, and showed that the battery can achieve energy densities of 10 Wh/kg or higher with a power density of 1.2 kW/kg.
Abstract: The science and technology of ultracapacitors are reviewed for a number of electrode materials, including carbon, mixed metal oxides, and conducting polymers. More work has been done using microporous carbons than with the other materials and most of the commercially available devices use carbon electrodes and an organic electrolytes. The energy density of these devices is 3¯5 Wh/kg with a power density of 300¯500 W/kg for high efficiency (90¯95%) charge/discharges. Projections of future developments using carbon indicate that energy densities of 10 Wh/kg or higher are likely with power densities of 1¯2 kW/kg. A key problem in the fabrication of these advanced devices is the bonding of the thin electrodes to a current collector such the contact resistance is less than 0.1 cm2. Special attention is given in the paper to comparing the power density characteristics of ultracapacitors and batteries. The comparisons should be made at the same charge/discharge efficiency.
01 Sep 2010