Mahmoud E. S. Soliman
Bio: Mahmoud E. S. Soliman is an academic researcher from University of KwaZulu-Natal. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Docking (molecular). The author has an hindex of 30, co-authored 285 publications receiving 3884 citations. Previous affiliations of Mahmoud E. S. Soliman include Ain Shams University & University of Bath.
TL;DR: It is optimistic that the concept of selective targeting remains the hope of the future in developing therapeutics that would selectively target cancer cells and leave healthy cells unharmed in cancer therapy.
Abstract: In the past, metal-based compounds were widely used in the treatment of disease conditions, but the lack of clear distinction between the therapeutic and toxic doses was a major challenge. With the discovery of cisplatin by Barnett Rosenberg in 1960, a milestone in the history of metal-based compounds used in the treatment of cancers was witnessed. This forms the foundation for the modern era of the metal-based anticancer drugs. Platinum drugs, such as cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin, are the mainstay of the metal-based compounds in the treatment of cancer, but the delay in the therapeutic accomplishment of other metal-based compounds hampered the progress of research in this field. Recently, however, there has been an upsurge of activities relying on the structural information, aimed at improving and developing other forms of metal-based compounds and nonclassical platinum complexes whose mechanism of action is distinct from known drugs such as cisplatin. In line with this, many more metal-based compounds have been synthesized by redesigning the existing chemical structure through ligand substitution or building the entire new compound with enhanced safety and cytotoxic profile. However, because of increased emphasis on the clinical relevance of metal-based complexes, a few of these drugs are currently on clinical trial and many more are awaiting ethical approval to join the trial. In this review, we seek to give an overview of previous reviews on the cytotoxic effect of metal-based complexes while focusing more on newly designed metal-based complexes and their cytotoxic effect on the cancer cell lines, as well as on new approach to metal-based drug design and molecular target in cancer therapy. We are optimistic that the concept of selective targeting remains the hope of the future in developing therapeutics that would selectively target cancer cells and leave healthy cells unharmed.
TL;DR: This review provides an overview of the biocompatibility and biodegradation of PLA, PLGA and their copolymers, with a special emphasis on tissue responses for these polymers as well as their degradation pathways and drug release models.
Abstract: Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are among the well-documented FDA-approved polymers used for the preparation of safe and effective vaccine, drug and gene delivery systems using well-described reproducible methods of fabrication. Various nano and microparticulates are fabricated using these polymers. Their successful performance relies on PLA and PLGA biocompatibility and degradability characteristics. This review provides an overview of the biocompatibility and biodegradation of PLA, PLGA and their copolymers, with a special emphasis on tissue responses for these polymers as well as their degradation pathways and drug release models. Moreover, the potential of PLA and PLGA based nano and microparticulates in various advanced biomedical applications is highlighted. PLA and PLGA based delivery systems show promises of releasing different drugs, proteins and nucleic acids in a stable and controlled manner and greatly ameliorating their therapeutic efficacy. In addition, advancement in surface modification and targeting of nanoparticles has extended the scope of their utility.
TL;DR: The aim of this review is to provide an up to date overview of the methods used for derivatizing the chitosan with amino acids and to discuss the characteristics and potential biomedical application of the different amino acid derivatizedchitosans described in the literature.
Abstract: The presence of reactive primary amines in the backbone structure of chitosan, enables the derivatisation with different functional groups and thereby improving and expanding its properties, such as solubility and mucoadhesiveness, for biomedical applications. Such derivatives can be exploited with good results in a number of biomedical areas, including enhancement of nucleic acid transfection in gene therapy, as well as many other applications aiming to maximize drug delivery and aiding tissue engineering. The aim of this review is to provide an up to date overview of the methods used for derivatizing the chitosan with amino acids and to discuss the characteristics and potential biomedical application of the different amino acid derivatized chitosans described in the literature.
TL;DR: This review is the first account that highlights different aspects of covalent docking with its merits and pitfalls, and believes that the method and applications highlighted in this study will help future efforts towards the design of irreversible inhibitors.
Abstract: he present art of drug discovery and design of new drugs is based on suicidal irreversible inhibitors. Covalent inhibition is the strategy that is used to achieve irreversible inhibition. Irreversible inhibitors interact with their targets in a time-dependent fashion, and the reaction proceeds to completion rather than to equilibrium. Covalent inhibitors possessed some significant advantages over non-covalent inhibitors such as covalent warheads can target rare, non-conserved residue of a particular target protein and thus led to development of highly selective inhibitors, covalent inhibitors can be effective in targeting proteins with shallow binding cleavage which will led to development of novel inhibitors with increased potency than non-covalent inhibitors. Several computational approaches have been developed to simulate covalent interactions; however, this is still a challenging area to explore. Covalent molecular docking has been recently implemented in the computer-aided drug design workflows to describe covalent interactions between inhibitors and biological targets. In this review we highlight: (i) covalent interactions in biomolecular systems; (ii) the mathematical framework of covalent molecular docking; (iii) implementation of covalent docking protocol in drug design workflows; (iv) applications covalent docking: case studies and (v) shortcomings and future perspectives of covalent docking. To the best of our knowledge; this review is the first account that highlights different aspects of covalent docking with its merits and pitfalls. We believe that the method and applications highlighted in this study will help future efforts towards the design of irreversible inhibitors.
TL;DR: Recent advances in the design of nanoscale stimuli-responsive systems that are able to control drug biodistribution in response to specific stimuli, either exogenous (variations in temperature, magnetic field, ultrasound intensity, light or electric pulses) or endogenous (changes in pH, enzyme concentration or redox gradients).
Abstract: Spurred by recent progress in materials chemistry and drug delivery, stimuli-responsive devices that deliver a drug in spatial-, temporal- and dosage-controlled fashions have become possible. Implementation of such devices requires the use of biocompatible materials that are susceptible to a specific physical incitement or that, in response to a specific stimulus, undergo a protonation, a hydrolytic cleavage or a (supra)molecular conformational change. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in the design of nanoscale stimuli-responsive systems that are able to control drug biodistribution in response to specific stimuli, either exogenous (variations in temperature, magnetic field, ultrasound intensity, light or electric pulses) or endogenous (changes in pH, enzyme concentration or redox gradients).
01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: Although combinatorial chemistry techniques have succeeded as methods of optimizing structures and have been used very successfully in the optimization of many recently approved agents, they are still able to identify only two de novo combinatorials compounds approved as drugs in this 39-year time frame.
Abstract: This review is an updated and expanded version of the five prior reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003, 2007, 2012, and 2016. For all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the almost 39 years from the first of January 1981 to the 30th of September 2019 for all diseases worldwide and from ∼1946 (earliest so far identified) to the 30th of September 2019 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide. As in earlier reviews, only the first approval of any drug is counted, irrespective of how many "biosimilars" or added approvals were subsequently identified. As in the 2012 and 2016 reviews, we have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a "natural product mimic", or "NM", to join the original primary divisions, and the designation "natural product botanical", or "NB", to cover those botanical "defined mixtures" now recognized as drug entities by the FDA (and similar organizations). From the data presented in this review, the utilization of natural products and/or synthetic variations using their novel structures, in order to discover and develop the final drug entity, is still alive and well. For example, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from 1946 to 1980, of the 75 small molecules, 40, or 53.3%, are N or ND. In the 1981 to date time frame the equivalent figures for the N* compounds of the 185 small molecules are 62, or 33.5%, though to these can be added the 58 S* and S*/NMs, bringing the figure to 64.9%. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked with, as expected from prior information, the anti-infective area being dependent on natural products and their structures, though as can be seen in the review there are still disease areas (shown in Table 2) for which there are no drugs derived from natural products. Although combinatorial chemistry techniques have succeeded as methods of optimizing structures and have been used very successfully in the optimization of many recently approved agents, we are still able to identify only two de novo combinatorial compounds (one of which is a little speculative) approved as drugs in this 39-year time frame, though there is also one drug that was developed using the "fragment-binding methodology" and approved in 2012. We have also added a discussion of candidate drug entities currently in clinical trials as "warheads" and some very interesting preliminary reports on sources of novel antibiotics from Nature due to the absolute requirement for new agents to combat plasmid-borne resistance genes now in the general populace. We continue to draw the attention of readers to the recognition that a significant number of natural product drugs/leads are actually produced by microbes and/or microbial interactions with the "host from whence it was isolated"; thus we consider that this area of natural product research should be expanded significantly.
01 Jan 2010