Other affiliations: K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Luleå University of Technology, University College of Engineering
Bio: Mahmoud Moradi is an academic researcher from Coventry University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Laser & Laser power scaling. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 71 publications receiving 747 citations. Previous affiliations of Mahmoud Moradi include K.N.Toosi University of Technology & Luleå University of Technology.
TL;DR: In this paper, the stability of the weld surface quality resulting from laser-arc hybrid welding of 4 mm thick steel was studied and the trends of stability in terms of top weld width variation were estimated by usi
Abstract: The stability of the weld surface quality resulting from laser–arc hybrid welding of 4 mm thick steel was studied The trends of stability in terms of top weld width variation were estimated by usi
TL;DR: In this article, a 60 Watts CO 2 laser cutting machine is used for cutting the injection molded samples of polycarbonate sheet with the thickness of 3.2mm. And the results reveal that by decreasing the laser focal plane position and laser power, the bottom kerf width will decrease and also the bottom kerf width decreases by increasing the cutting speed.
Abstract: Laser cutting technology is a non-contact process that typically is used for industrial manufacturing applications. Laser cut quality is strongly influenced by the cutting processing parameters. In this research, CO 2 laser cutting specifications have been investigated by using design of experiments (DOE) with considering laser cutting speed, laser power and focal plane position as process input parameters and kerf geometry dimensions (i.e. top and bottom kerf width, ratio of the upper kerf to lower kerf, upper heat affected zone (HAZ)) and surface roughness of the kerf wall as process output responses. A 60 Watts CO 2 laser cutting machine is used for cutting the injection molded samples of polycarbonate sheet with the thickness of 3.2 mm. Results reveal that by decreasing the laser focal plane position and laser power, the bottom kerf width will be decreased. Also the bottom kerf width decreases by increasing the cutting speed. As a general result, locating the laser spot point in the depth of the workpiece the laser cutting quality increases. Minimum value of the responses (top kerf, heat affected zone, ratio of the upper kerf to lower kerf, and surface roughness) are considered as optimization criteria. Validating the theoretical results using the experimental tests is carried out in order to analyze the results obtained via software.
TL;DR: In this paper, a high power diode laser using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for laser surface hardening of AISI 4130 carbon steel, and the results indicated that by increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed and focal plane position, higher surface hardness with more penetration in depth, higher average micro-hardness and minimum ferrite percentage will be achieved.
Abstract: Laser surface hardening of AISI 4130 carbon steel was conducted with a high power diode laser using Response Surface Methodology. Scanning speed, laser power and focal plane position were considered as the input process variables and cross sectional geometry of the hardened area, average micro-hardness and the ferrite phase percentage were considered as process responses. The effect of parameters on the responses variations were investigated using analysis of variance. Microstructure evaluation of the laser hardened zone was performed using optical and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that by increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed and focal plane position, higher surface hardness with more penetration in depth, higher average micro-hardness and minimum ferrite percentage will be achieved. Finally, the process was optimized by desire ability approach based on the applied statistical analyses. Minimum value of percentage of the ferrite and maximum value of the other responses are considered as optimization criteria. The recommended optimized results were validated using the experimental tests. The results show that the hardness of the diode laser hardening process is 3 times of the hardness of the base metal. Laser-overlapping scanning is performed in the optimum setting and effect of overlapping percentage is investigated.
TL;DR: In this paper, the capability of the hybrid laser-arc welding in comparison with lone laser welding for AA2198 aluminum alloy was compared experimentally. But the results indicated that conduction mode occurred and keyhole was not formed even in low welding speeds and thus the penetration depth was so low.
Abstract: This paper surveys the capability of the hybrid laser-arc welding in comparison with lone laser welding for AA2198 aluminum alloy experimentally. In the present research, a continuous Nd:YAG laser with a maximum power of 2000 W and a 350 A electric arc were used as two combined welding heat sources. In addition to the lone laser welding experiments, two strategies were examined for hybrid welding; the first one was low laser power (100 W) accompanied by high arc energy, and the second one was high laser power (2000 W) with low arc energy. Welding speed and arc current varied in the experiments. The influence of heat input on weld pool geometry was surveyed. The macrosection, microhardness profile and microstructure of the welded joints were studied and compared. The results indicated that in lone laser welding, conduction mode occurred and keyhole was not formed even in low welding speeds and thus the penetration depth was so low. It was also found that the second approach (high laser power accompanied with low arc energy) is superior to the first one (low laser power accompanied with high arc energy) in hybrid laser-arc welding of Al2198, since lower heat input was needed for full penetration weld and as a result a smaller HAZ was created.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated additive manufacturing of polylactic acid by fused deposition modeling based on statistical analysis, where the honeycomb internal pattern was employed to build inside of specimens due to its remarkable capability to resist mechanical loads.
Abstract: In the present study additive manufacturing of Polylactic acid by fused deposition modeling were investigated based on statistical analysis. The honeycomb internal pattern was employed to build inside of specimens due to its remarkable capability to resist mechanical loads. Simplify 3D was utilized to slice the 3D model and to adjust fixed parameters. Layer thickness, infill percentage, and extruder temperature were considered as controlled variables, while maximum failure load (N), elongation at break (mm), part weight (g), and build time (min) were selected as output responses and analysed by response surface method. Analysis of variance results identified layer thickness as the major controlled variable for all responses. Interaction of infill percentage and extruder temperature had a significant influence on elongation at break and therefore, tough fracture of printed parts. The input parameters were optimized to materialize tow criteria; the first one was to rise maximum failure load and the second was to attain tough fracture and lessen build time and part weight at a time. Optimal solutions were examined by experimental fabrication to evaluate the efficiency of the optimization method. There was a good agreement between empirical results and response surface method predictions which confirmed the reliability of predictive models. The optimal setting to fulfill the first criterion could bring on a specimen with more than 1500 (N) maximum failure load and less than 9 (g) weight.
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON
24 Jun 2016
TL;DR: This article compares the syntheses/processing-morphology-properties interrelationships in PLA-based blends developed so far for various applications and considers favorably for biomedical applications and as the most promising substitute for petroleum-based polymers in a wide range of commodity and engineering applications.
Abstract: Poly (lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) is a commercial biobased, biodegradable, biocompatible, compostable and non-toxic polymer that has competitive material and processing costs and desirable mechanical properties. Thereby, it can be considered favorably for biomedical applications and as the most promising substitute for petroleum-based polymers in a wide range of commodity and engineering applications. However, PLA has some significant shortcomings such as low melt strength, slow crystallization rate, poor processability, high brittleness, low toughness, and low service temperature, which limit its applications. To overcome these limitations, blending PLA with other polymers is an inexpensive approach that could also tailor the final properties of PLA-based products. During the last two decades, researchers investigated the synthesis, processing, properties, and development of various PLA-based blend systems including miscible blends of poly l-lactide (PLLA) and poly d-lactide (PDLA), which generate stereocomplex crystals, binary immiscible/miscible blends of PLA with other thermoplastics, multifunctional ternary blends using a third polymer or fillers such as nanoparticles, as well as PLA-based blend foam systems. This article reviews all these investigations and compares the syntheses/processing-morphology-properties interrelationships in PLA-based blends developed so far for various applications.
12 Aug 2016
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding.
Abstract: With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m -bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m -bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications.
TL;DR: The most common defects on printed parts, in particular the void formation, surface roughness and poor bonding between fibre and matrix, are explored and an inclusive discussion on the effectiveness of chemical, laser, heat and ultrasound treatments to minimize these drawbacks is provided.
Abstract: Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the fastest-growing additive manufacturing methods used in printing fibre-reinforced composites (FRC). The performances of the resulting printed parts are limited compared to those by other manufacturing methods due to their inherent defects. Hence, the effort to develop treatment methods to overcome these drawbacks has accelerated during the past few years. The main focus of this study is to review the impact of those defects on the mechanical performance of FRC and therefore to discuss the available treatment methods to eliminate or minimize them in order to enhance the functional properties of the printed parts. As FRC is a combination of polymer matrix material and continuous or short reinforcing fibres, this review will thoroughly discuss both thermoplastic polymers and FRCs printed via FDM technology, including the effect of printing parameters such as layer thickness, infill pattern, raster angle and fibre orientation. The most common defects on printed parts, in particular, the void formation, surface roughness and poor bonding between fibre and matrix, are explored. An inclusive discussion on the effectiveness of chemical, laser, heat and ultrasound treatments to minimize these drawbacks is provided by this review.