Other affiliations: Syracuse University, Louisiana State University, Northeastern University ...read more
Bio: Mahmut Kandemir is an academic researcher from Pennsylvania State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cache & Compiler. The author has an hindex of 64, co-authored 820 publications receiving 19730 citations. Previous affiliations of Mahmut Kandemir include Syracuse University & Louisiana State University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The other source of power dissipation in microprocessors, dynamic power, arises from the repeated capacitance charge and discharge on the output of the hundreds of millions of gates in today's chips.
Abstract: Off-state leakage is static power, current that leaks through transistors even when they are turned off. The other source of power dissipation in today's microprocessors, dynamic power, arises from the repeated capacitance charge and discharge on the output of the hundreds of millions of gates in today's chips. Until recently, only dynamic power has been a significant source of power consumption, and Moore's law helped control it. However, power consumption has now become a primary microprocessor design constraint; one that researchers in both industry and academia will struggle to overcome in the next few years. Microprocessor design has traditionally focused on dynamic power consumption as a limiting factor in system integration. As feature sizes shrink below 0.1 micron, static power is posing new low-power design challenges.
••01 Jun 2000
TL;DR: This paper uses the use of SimplePower to evaluate the impact of a new selective gated pipeline register optimization, a high-level data transformation and a pow er-conscious post compilation optimization on the datapath, memory and on-chip bus energy, respectively.
Abstract: In this paper, we presen t the design and use of a comprehensiv e framework, SimplePower, for ev aluating the effect of high-level algorithmic, architectural, and compilation trade-offs on energy. An execution-driven, cycle-accurate RT lev el energy estimation tool that uses transition sensitive energy models forms the cornerstone of this framework. SimplePower also pro vides the energy consumed in the memory system and on-chip buses using analytical energy models.We presen t the use of SimplePower to evaluate the impact of a new selective gated pipeline register optimization, a high-level data transformation and a pow er-conscious post compilation optimization (register relabeling) on the datapath, memory and on-chip bus energy, respectively. We find that these three optimizations reduce the energy by 18-36% in the datapath, 62% in the memory system and 12% in the instruction cache data bus, respectively.
••21 Apr 2013
TL;DR: It is shown that an optimized, equal capacity STT-RAM main memory can provide performance comparable to DRAM main memory, with an average 60% reduction in main memory energy.
Abstract: In this paper, we explore the possibility of using STT-RAM technology to completely replace DRAM in main memory. Our goal is to make STT-RAM performance comparable to DRAM while providing substantial power savings. Towards this goal, we first analyze the performance and energy of STT-RAM, and then identify key optimizations that can be employed to improve its characteristics. Specifically, using partial write and row buffer write bypass, we show that STT-RAM main memory performance and energy can be significantly improved. Our experiments indicate that an optimized, equal capacity STT-RAM main memory can provide performance comparable to DRAM main memory, with an average 60% reduction in main memory energy.
••01 May 2003
TL;DR: A new approach called DRPM to modulate disk speed (RPM) dynamically, and a practical implementation to exploit this mechanism is presented, showing that DRPM can provide significant energy savings without compromising much on performance.
Abstract: A large portion of the power budget in server environments goes into the I/O subsystem - the disk array in particular. Traditional approaches to disk power management involve completely stopping the disk rotation, which can take a considerable amount of time, making them less useful in cases where idle times between disk requests may not be long enough to outweigh the overheads. This paper presents a new approach called DRPM to modulate disk speed (RPM) dynamically, and gives a practical implementation to exploit this mechanism. Extensive simulations with different workload and hardware parameters show that DRPM can provide significant energy savings without compromising much on performance. This paper also discusses practical issues when implementing DRPM on server disks.
••01 May 2006
TL;DR: A router architecture and a topology design that makes use of a network architecture embedded into the L2 cache memory are proposed that demonstrate that a 3D L2 memory architecture generates much better results than the conventional two-dimensional designs under different number of layers and vertical connections.
Abstract: Long interconnects are becoming an increasingly important problem from both power and performance perspectives. This motivates designers to adopt on-chip network-based communication infrastructures and three-dimensional (3D) designs where multiple device layers are stacked together. Considering the current trends towards increasing use of chip multiprocessing, it is timely to consider 3D chip multiprocessor design and memory networking issues, especially in the context of data management in large L2 caches. The overall goal of this paper is to study the challenges for L2 design and management in 3D chip multiprocessors. Our first contribution is to propose a router architecture and a topology design that makes use of a network architecture embedded into the L2 cache memory. Our second contribution is to demonstrate, through extensive experiments, that a 3D L2 memory architecture generates much better results than the conventional two-dimensional (2D) designs under different number of layers and vertical (inter-wafer) connections. In particular, our experiments show that a 3D architecture with no dynamic data migration generates better performance than a 2D architecture that employs data migration. This also helps reduce power consumption in L2 due to a reduced number of data movements.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).
01 Jun 2012
TL;DR: SPAdes as mentioned in this paper is a new assembler for both single-cell and standard (multicell) assembly, and demonstrate that it improves on the recently released E+V-SC assembler and on popular assemblers Velvet and SoapDeNovo (for multicell data).
Abstract: The lion's share of bacteria in various environments cannot be cloned in the laboratory and thus cannot be sequenced using existing technologies. A major goal of single-cell genomics is to complement gene-centric metagenomic data with whole-genome assemblies of uncultivated organisms. Assembly of single-cell data is challenging because of highly non-uniform read coverage as well as elevated levels of sequencing errors and chimeric reads. We describe SPAdes, a new assembler for both single-cell and standard (multicell) assembly, and demonstrate that it improves on the recently released E+V-SC assembler (specialized for single-cell data) and on popular assemblers Velvet and SoapDeNovo (for multicell data). SPAdes generates single-cell assemblies, providing information about genomes of uncultivatable bacteria that vastly exceeds what may be obtained via traditional metagenomics studies. SPAdes is available online ( http://bioinf.spbau.ru/spades ). It is distributed as open source software.
22 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems are reviewed, including those related to the WWW.
Abstract: We will review some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems. We will cover algorithmic and structural questions. We will touch on newer models, including those related to the WWW.
TL;DR: This paper is aimed to demonstrate a close-up view about Big Data, including Big Data applications, Big Data opportunities and challenges, as well as the state-of-the-art techniques and technologies currently adopt to deal with the Big Data problems.
Abstract: It is already true that Big Data has drawn huge attention from researchers in information sciences, policy and decision makers in governments and enterprises. As the speed of information growth exceeds Moore's Law at the beginning of this new century, excessive data is making great troubles to human beings. However, there are so much potential and highly useful values hidden in the huge volume of data. A new scientific paradigm is born as data-intensive scientific discovery (DISD), also known as Big Data problems. A large number of fields and sectors, ranging from economic and business activities to public administration, from national security to scientific researches in many areas, involve with Big Data problems. On the one hand, Big Data is extremely valuable to produce productivity in businesses and evolutionary breakthroughs in scientific disciplines, which give us a lot of opportunities to make great progresses in many fields. There is no doubt that the future competitions in business productivity and technologies will surely converge into the Big Data explorations. On the other hand, Big Data also arises with many challenges, such as difficulties in data capture, data storage, data analysis and data visualization. This paper is aimed to demonstrate a close-up view about Big Data, including Big Data applications, Big Data opportunities and challenges, as well as the state-of-the-art techniques and technologies we currently adopt to deal with the Big Data problems. We also discuss several underlying methodologies to handle the data deluge, for example, granular computing, cloud computing, bio-inspired computing, and quantum computing. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.