Author

# Majid Rabbani

Other affiliations: Eastman Kodak Company

Bio: Majid Rabbani is an academic researcher from B. S. Abdur Rahman University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Digital image & Image compression. The author has an hindex of 30, co-authored 114 publications receiving 4344 citations. Previous affiliations of Majid Rabbani include Eastman Kodak Company.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: Although the JPEG 2000 standard only specifies the decoder and the codesteam syntax, the discussion will span both encoder and decoder issues to provide a better understanding of the standard in various applications.

Abstract: In 1996, the JPEG committee began to investigate possibilities for a new still image compression standard to serve current and future applications. This initiative, which was named JPEG 2000, has resulted in a comprehensive standard (ISO 15444∣ITU-T Recommendation T.800) that is being issued in six parts. Part 1, in the same vein as the JPEG baseline system, is aimed at minimal complexity and maximal interchange and was issued as an International Standard at the end of 2000. Parts 2–6 define extensions to both the compression technology and the file format and are currently in various stages of development. In this paper, a technical description of Part 1 of the JPEG 2000 standard is provided, and the rationale behind the selected technologies is explained. Although the JPEG 2000 standard only specifies the decoder and the codesteam syntax, the discussion will span both encoder and decoder issues to provide a better understanding of the standard in various applications.

528 citations

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07 May 1998TL;DR: In this paper, a method and system embeds digital meta-data into an original image in such a way that the meta data can be completely removed at a later time to allow loss less recovery of the original image.

Abstract: The method and system embeds digital meta-data into an original image in such a way that the meta-data can be completely removed at a later time to allow loss less recovery of the original image. The loss less recovery of the original image allows for a digital signature of the image to be embedded in the image itself and later recovered and used to verify the authenticity of a received image.

472 citations

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19 May 1988TL;DR: In this paper, a method and apparatus for transmitting a digital image over a limited bandwidth communication channel, an image is block transformed to produce blocks of transform coefficients; the transform coefficients are quantized in accordance with a model of the visibility of quantization error in the presence of image detail.

Abstract: In a method and apparatus for transmitting a digital image over a limited bandwidth communication channel, an image is block transformed to produce blocks of transform coefficients; the transform coefficients are quantized in accordance with a model of the visibility of quantization error in the presence of image detail; the quantized coefficients are encoded with a minimum redundancy code; and the coded, quantized transform coefficients are transmitted.

228 citations

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TL;DR: Stochastic amplification of photon noise by one stage of an imaging system is shown to constitute an effective signal to the next, while the underlying photon-noise component is unaffected by a subsequent scattering process, which leads to useful expressions for the noise power spectrum and detective quantum efficiency for multistage image systems.

Abstract: We have analyzed the influence of stochastic amplifying and scattering mechanisms on the transfer of signal and noise through multistage imaging systems in terms of multivariate moment-generating functions. Stochastic amplification of photon noise by one stage of an imaging system is shown to constitute an effective signal to the next, while the underlying photon-noise component is unaffected by a subsequent scattering process. In the case of stationary, photon-limited inputs, these considerations then lead to useful expressions for the noise power spectrum and detective quantum efficiency for multistage image systems. The application of these results to the analysis of radiographic screen–film imaging systems is discussed.

211 citations

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TL;DR: It is argued that insertion of a watermark under this regime makes the watermark robust to signal processing operations and common geometric transformations provided that the original image is available and that it can be successfully registered against the transformed watermarked image.

Abstract: This paper presents a secure (tamper-resistant) algorithm for watermarking images, and a methodology for digital watermarking that may be generalized to audio, video, and multimedia data. We advocate that a watermark should be constructed as an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian random vector that is imperceptibly inserted in a spread-spectrum-like fashion into the perceptually most significant spectral components of the data. We argue that insertion of a watermark under this regime makes the watermark robust to signal processing operations (such as lossy compression, filtering, digital-analog and analog-digital conversion, requantization, etc.), and common geometric transformations (such as cropping, scaling, translation, and rotation) provided that the original image is available and that it can be successfully registered against the transformed watermarked image. In these cases, the watermark detector unambiguously identifies the owner. Further, the use of Gaussian noise, ensures strong resilience to multiple-document, or collusional, attacks. Experimental results are provided to support these claims, along with an exposition of pending open problems.

6,194 citations

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TL;DR: The image coding results, calculated from actual file sizes and images reconstructed by the decoding algorithm, are either comparable to or surpass previous results obtained through much more sophisticated and computationally complex methods.

Abstract: Embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) coding, introduced by Shapiro (see IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol.41, no.12, p.3445, 1993), is a very effective and computationally simple technique for image compression. We offer an alternative explanation of the principles of its operation, so that the reasons for its excellent performance can be better understood. These principles are partial ordering by magnitude with a set partitioning sorting algorithm, ordered bit plane transmission, and exploitation of self-similarity across different scales of an image wavelet transform. Moreover, we present a new and different implementation based on set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT), which provides even better performance than our previously reported extension of EZW that surpassed the performance of the original EZW. The image coding results, calculated from actual file sizes and images reconstructed by the decoding algorithm, are either comparable to or surpass previous results obtained through much more sophisticated and computationally complex methods. In addition, the new coding and decoding procedures are extremely fast, and they can be made even faster, with only small loss in performance, by omitting entropy coding of the bit stream by the arithmetic code.

5,890 citations

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TL;DR: The redundancy in digital images is explored to achieve very high embedding capacity, and keep the distortion low, in a novel reversible data-embedding method for digital images.

Abstract: Reversible data embedding has drawn lots of interest recently Being reversible, the original digital content can be completely restored We present a novel reversible data-embedding method for digital images We explore the redundancy in digital images to achieve very high embedding capacity, and keep the distortion low

2,739 citations

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01 Jan 1996TL;DR: The author explains the development of the Huffman Coding Algorithm and some of the techniques used in its implementation, as well as some of its applications, including Image Compression, which is based on the JBIG standard.

Abstract: Preface 1 Introduction 1.1 Compression Techniques 1.1.1 Lossless Compression 1.1.2 Lossy Compression 1.1.3 Measures of Performance 1.2 Modeling and Coding 1.3 Organization of This Book 1.4 Summary 1.5 Projects and Problems 2 Mathematical Preliminaries 2.1 Overview 2.2 A Brief Introduction to Information Theory 2.3 Models 2.3.1 Physical Models 2.3.2 Probability Models 2.3.3. Markov Models 2.3.4 Summary 2.5 Projects and Problems 3 Huffman Coding 3.1 Overview 3.2 "Good" Codes 3.3. The Huffman Coding Algorithm 3.3.1 Minimum Variance Huffman Codes 3.3.2 Length of Huffman Codes 3.3.3 Extended Huffman Codes 3.4 Nonbinary Huffman Codes 3.5 Adaptive Huffman Coding 3.5.1 Update Procedure 3.5.2 Encoding Procedure 3.5.3 Decoding Procedure 3.6 Applications of Huffman Coding 3.6.1 Lossless Image Compression 3.6.2 Text Compression 3.6.3 Audio Compression 3.7 Summary 3.8 Projects and Problems 4 Arithmetic Coding 4.1 Overview 4.2 Introduction 4.3 Coding a Sequence 4.3.1 Generating a Tag 4.3.2 Deciphering the Tag 4.4 Generating a Binary Code 4.4.1 Uniqueness and Efficiency of the Arithmetic Code 4.4.2 Algorithm Implementation 4.4.3 Integer Implementation 4.5 Comparison of Huffman and Arithmetic Coding 4.6 Applications 4.6.1 Bi-Level Image Compression-The JBIG Standard 4.6.2 Image Compression 4.7 Summary 4.8 Projects and Problems 5 Dictionary Techniques 5.1 Overview 5.2 Introduction 5.3 Static Dictionary 5.3.1 Diagram Coding 5.4 Adaptive Dictionary 5.4.1 The LZ77 Approach 5.4.2 The LZ78 Approach 5.5 Applications 5.5.1 File Compression-UNIX COMPRESS 5.5.2 Image Compression-the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) 5.5.3 Compression over Modems-V.42 bis 5.6 Summary 5.7 Projects and Problems 6 Lossless Image Compression 6.1 Overview 6.2 Introduction 6.3 Facsimile Encoding 6.3.1 Run-Length Coding 6.3.2 CCITT Group 3 and 4-Recommendations T.4 and T.6 6.3.3 Comparison of MH, MR, MMR, and JBIG 6.4 Progressive Image Transmission 6.5 Other Image Compression Approaches 6.5.1 Linear Prediction Models 6.5.2 Context Models 6.5.3 Multiresolution Models 6.5.4 Modeling Prediction Errors 6.6 Summary 6.7 Projects and Problems 7 Mathematical Preliminaries 7.1 Overview 7.2 Introduction 7.3 Distortion Criteria 7.3.1 The Human Visual System 7.3.2 Auditory Perception 7.4 Information Theory Revisted 7.4.1 Conditional Entropy 7.4.2 Average Mutual Information 7.4.3 Differential Entropy 7.5 Rate Distortion Theory 7.6 Models 7.6.1 Probability Models 7.6.2 Linear System Models 7.6.3 Physical Models 7.7 Summary 7.8 Projects and Problems 8 Scalar Quantization 8.1 Overview 8.2 Introduction 8.3 The Quantization Problem 8.4 Uniform Quantizer 8.5 Adaptive Quantization 8.5.1 Forward Adaptive Quantization 8.5.2 Backward Adaptive Quantization 8.6 Nonuniform Quantization 8.6.1 pdf-Optimized Quantization 8.6.2 Companded Quantization 8.7 Entropy-Coded Quantization 8.7.1 Entropy Coding of Lloyd-Max Quantizer Outputs 8.7.2 Entropy-Constrained Quantization 8.7.3 High-Rate Optimum Quantization 8.8 Summary 8.9 Projects and Problems 9 Vector Quantization 9.1 Overview 9.2 Introduction 9.3 Advantages of Vector Quantization over Scalar Quantization 9.4 The Linde-Buzo-Gray Algorithm 9.4.1 Initializing the LBG Algorithm 9.4.2 The Empty Cell Problem 9.4.3 Use of LBG for Image Compression 9.5 Tree-Structured Vector Quantizers 9.5.1 Design of Tree-Structured Vector Quantizers 9.6 Structured Vector Quantizers 9.6.1 Pyramid Vector Quantization 9.6.2 Polar and Spherical Vector Quantizers 9.6.3 Lattice Vector Quantizers 9.7 Variations on the Theme 9.7.1 Gain-Shape Vector Quantization 9.7.2 Mean-Removed Vector Quantization 9.7.3 Classified Vector Quantization 9.7.4 Multistage Vector Quantization 9.7.5 Adaptive Vector Quantization 9.8 Summary 9.9 Projects and Problems 10 Differential Encoding 10.1 Overview 10.2 Introduction 10.3 The Basic Algorithm 10.4 Prediction in DPCM 10.5 Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM) 10.5.1 Adaptive Quantization in DPCM 10.5.2 Adaptive Prediction in DPCM 10.6 Delta Modulation 10.6.1 Constant Factor Adaptive Delta Modulation (CFDM) 10.6.2 Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation 10.7 Speech Coding 10.7.1 G.726 10.8 Summary 10.9 Projects and Problems 11 Subband Coding 11.1 Overview 11.2 Introduction 11.3 The Frequency Domain and Filtering 11.3.1 Filters 11.4 The Basic Subband Coding Algorithm 11.4.1 Bit Allocation 11.5 Application to Speech Coding-G.722 11.6 Application to Audio Coding-MPEG Audio 11.7 Application to Image Compression 11.7.1 Decomposing an Image 11.7.2 Coding the Subbands 11.8 Wavelets 11.8.1 Families of Wavelets 11.8.2 Wavelets and Image Compression 11.9 Summary 11.10 Projects and Problems 12 Transform Coding 12.1 Overview 12.2 Introduction 12.3 The Transform 12.4 Transforms of Interest 12.4.1 Karhunen-Loeve Transform 12.4.2 Discrete Cosine Transform 12.4.3 Discrete Sine Transform 12.4.4 Discrete Walsh-Hadamard Transform 12.5 Quantization and Coding of Transform Coefficients 12.6 Application to Image Compression-JPEG 12.6.1 The Transform 12.6.2 Quantization 12.6.3 Coding 12.7 Application to Audio Compression 12.8 Summary 12.9 Projects and Problems 13 Analysis/Synthesis Schemes 13.1 Overview 13.2 Introduction 13.3 Speech Compression 13.3.1 The Channel Vocoder 13.3.2 The Linear Predictive Coder (Gov.Std.LPC-10) 13.3.3 Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) 13.3.4 Sinusoidal Coders 13.4 Image Compression 13.4.1 Fractal Compression 13.5 Summary 13.6 Projects and Problems 14 Video Compression 14.1 Overview 14.2 Introduction 14.3 Motion Compensation 14.4 Video Signal Representation 14.5 Algorithms for Videoconferencing and Videophones 14.5.1 ITU_T Recommendation H.261 14.5.2 Model-Based Coding 14.6 Asymmetric Applications 14.6.1 The MPEG Video Standard 14.7 Packet Video 14.7.1 ATM Networks 14.7.2 Compression Issues in ATM Networks 14.7.3 Compression Algorithms for Packet Video 14.8 Summary 14.9 Projects and Problems A Probability and Random Processes A.1 Probability A.2 Random Variables A.3 Distribution Functions A.4 Expectation A.5 Types of Distribution A.6 Stochastic Process A.7 Projects and Problems B A Brief Review of Matrix Concepts B.1 A Matrix B.2 Matrix Operations C Codes for Facsimile Encoding D The Root Lattices Bibliography Index

2,311 citations

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TL;DR: It is proved analytically and shown experimentally that the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the marked image generated by this method versus the original image is guaranteed to be above 48 dB, which is much higher than that of all reversible data hiding techniques reported in the literature.

Abstract: A novel reversible data hiding algorithm, which can recover the original image without any distortion from the marked image after the hidden data have been extracted, is presented in this paper. This algorithm utilizes the zero or the minimum points of the histogram of an image and slightly modifies the pixel grayscale values to embed data into the image. It can embed more data than many of the existing reversible data hiding algorithms. It is proved analytically and shown experimentally that the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of the marked image generated by this method versus the original image is guaranteed to be above 48 dB. This lower bound of PSNR is much higher than that of all reversible data hiding techniques reported in the literature. The computational complexity of our proposed technique is low and the execution time is short. The algorithm has been successfully applied to a wide range of images, including commonly used images, medical images, texture images, aerial images and all of the 1096 images in CorelDraw database. Experimental results and performance comparison with other reversible data hiding schemes are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm.

2,240 citations