Other affiliations: Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Bosch, Indian Institutes of Technology ...read more
Bio: Manikandan Narayanan is an academic researcher from National Institutes of Health. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Cluster analysis & Gene regulatory network. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 23 publication(s) receiving 2054 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Manikandan Narayanan include Indian Institute of Technology Madras & Bosch.
TL;DR: The causal network structure is a useful predictor of response to gene perturbations and presents a framework to test models of disease mechanisms underlying LOAD.
Abstract: The genetics of complex disease produce alterations in the molecular interactions of cellular pathways whose collective effect may become clear through the organized structure of molecular networks. To characterize molecular systems associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), we constructed gene-regulatory networks in 1,647 postmortem brain tissues from LOAD patients and nondemented subjects, and we demonstrate that LOAD reconfigures specific portions of the molecular interaction structure. Through an integrative network-based approach, we rank-ordered these network structures for relevance to LOAD pathology, highlighting an immune- and microglia-specific module that is dominated by genes involved in pathogen phagocytosis, contains TYROBP as a key regulator, and is upregulated in LOAD. Mouse microglia cells overexpressing intact or truncated TYROBP revealed expression changes that significantly overlapped the human brain TYROBP network. Thus the causal network structure is a useful predictor of response to gene perturbations and presents a framework to test models of disease mechanisms underlying LOAD.
TL;DR: Independent of age and pre-existing antibody titers, accurate models could be constructed using pre-perturbation cell populations alone, which were validated using independent baseline time points.
Abstract: A major goal of systems biology is the development of models that accurately predict responses to perturbation. Constructing such models requires the collection of dense measurements of system states, yet transformation of data into predictive constructs remains a challenge. To begin to model human immunity, we analyzed immune parameters in depth both at baseline and in response to influenza vaccination. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcriptomes, serum titers, cell subpopulation frequencies, and B cell responses were assessed in 63 individuals before and after vaccination and were used to develop a systematic framework to dissect inter- and intra-individual variation and build predictive models of postvaccination antibody responses. Strikingly, independent of age and pre-existing antibody titers, accurate models could be constructed using pre-perturbation cell populations alone, which were validated using independent baseline time points. Most of the parameters contributing to prediction delineated temporally stable baseline differences across individuals, raising the prospect of immune monitoring before intervention.
01 Jul 2014-Molecular Systems Biology
TL;DR: Using expression profiles from postmortem prefrontal cortex samples of 624 dementia patients and non‐demented controls, this work identified a 242‐gene subnetwork enriched for independent AD/HD signatures, which revealed a surprising dichotomy of gained/lost correlations among two inter‐connected processes, chromatin organization and neural differentiation.
Abstract: Using expression profiles from postmortem prefrontal cortex samples of 624 dementia patients and non-demented controls, we investigated global disruptions in the co-regulation of genes in two neurodegenerative diseases, late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). We identified networks of differentially co-expressed (DC) gene pairs that either gained or lost correlation in disease cases relative to the control group, with the former dominant for both AD and HD and both patterns replicating in independent human cohorts of AD and aging. When aligning networks of DC patterns and physical interactions, we identified a 242-gene subnetwork enriched for independent AD/HD signatures. This subnetwork revealed a surprising dichotomy of gained/lost correlations among two inter-connected processes, chromatin organization and neural differentiation, and included DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3A, of which we predicted the former but not latter as a key regulator. To validate the inter-connection of these two processes and our key regulator prediction, we generated two brain-specific knockout (KO) mice and show that Dnmt1 KO signature significantly overlaps with the subnetwork (P = 3.1 × 10 � 12 ), while Dnmt3a KO signature does not (P = 0.017).
TL;DR: The results suggest that CD8+ lymphocytes undergo chromatin remodeling in a progressive fashion, and have major implications for the understanding of peripheral T-cell ontogeny and the formation of immunological memory.
Abstract: To better elucidate epigenetic mechanisms that correlate with the dynamic gene expression program observed upon T-cell differentiation, we investigated the genomic landscape of histone modifications in naive and memory CD8+ T cells. Using a ChIP-Seq approach coupled with global gene expression profiling, we generated genome-wide histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) trimethylation maps in naive, T memory stem cells, central memory cells, and effector memory cells in order to gain insight into how histone architecture is remodeled during T cell differentiation. We show that H3K4me3 histone modifications are associated with activation of genes, while H3K27me3 is negatively correlated with gene expression at canonical loci and enhancers associated with T-cell metabolism, effector function, and memory. Our results also reveal histone modifications and gene expression signatures that distinguish the recently identified T memory stem cells from other CD8+ T-cell subsets. Taken together, our results suggest that CD8+ lymphocytes undergo chromatin remodeling in a progressive fashion. These findings have major implications for our understanding of peripheral T-cell ontogeny and the formation of immunological memory.
01 Feb 2007-arXiv: Molecular Networks
TL;DR: A method that compares the protein interaction networks of two species to detect functionally similar (conserved) protein modules between them, based on an algorithm developed to identify matching subgraphs between two graphs that performs competitively with and sometimes better than two previous network comparison methods.
Abstract: We present a method that compares the protein interaction networks of two species to detect functionally similar (conserved) protein modules between them. The method is based on an algorithm we developed to identify matching subgraphs between two graphs. Unlike previous network comparison methods, our algorithm has provable guarantees on correctness and efficiency. Our algorithm framework also admits quite general connectivity and local matching criteria that define when two subgraphs match and constitute a conserved module. We apply our method to pairwise comparisons of the yeast protein network with the human, fruit fly and nematode worm protein networks, using a lenient criterion based on connectedness and matching edges, coupled with a betweenness clustering heuristic. We evaluate the detected conserved modules against reference yeast protein complexes using sensitivity and specificity measures. In these evaluations, our method performs competitively with and sometimes better than two previous network comparison methods. Further under some conditions (proper homolog and species selection), our method performs better than a popular single-species clustering method. Beyond these evaluations, we discuss the biology of a couple of conserved modules detected by our method. We demonstrate the utility of network comparison for transferring annotations from yeast proteins to human ones, and validate the predicted annotations.
TL;DR: The landscape of gene expression across tissues is described, thousands of tissue-specific and shared regulatory expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) variants are cataloged, complex network relationships are described, and signals from genome-wide association studies explained by eQTLs are identified.
Abstract: Understanding the functional consequences of genetic variation, and how it affects complex human disease and quantitative traits, remains a critical challenge for biomedicine. We present an analysi...
01 Jun 2016-Embo Molecular Medicine
TL;DR: In a recent study, this article showed that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 and amyloid-PET positivity precede other AD manifestations by many years.
Abstract: Despite continuing debate about the amyloid β‐protein (or Aβ hypothesis, new lines of evidence from laboratories and clinics worldwide support the concept that an imbalance between production and clearance of Aβ42 and related Aβ peptides is a very early, often initiating factor in Alzheimer9s disease (AD). Confirmation that presenilin is the catalytic site of γ‐secretase has provided a linchpin: all dominant mutations causing early‐onset AD occur either in the substrate (amyloid precursor protein, APP) or the protease (presenilin) of the reaction that generates Aβ. Duplication of the wild‐type APP gene in Down9s syndrome leads to Aβ deposits in the teens, followed by microgliosis, astrocytosis, and neurofibrillary tangles typical of AD. Apolipoprotein E4, which predisposes to AD in > 40% of cases, has been found to impair Aβ clearance from the brain. Soluble oligomers of Aβ42 isolated from AD patients9 brains can decrease synapse number, inhibit long‐term potentiation, and enhance long‐term synaptic depression in rodent hippocampus, and injecting them into healthy rats impairs memory. The human oligomers also induce hyperphosphorylation of tau at AD‐relevant epitopes and cause neuritic dystrophy in cultured neurons. Crossing human APP with human tau transgenic mice enhances tau‐positive neurotoxicity. In humans, new studies show that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 and amyloid‐PET positivity precede other AD manifestations by many years. Most importantly, recent trials of three different Aβ antibodies (solanezumab, crenezumab, and aducanumab) have suggested a slowing of cognitive decline in post hoc analyses of mild AD subjects. Although many factors contribute to AD pathogenesis, Aβ dyshomeostasis has emerged as the most extensively validated and compelling therapeutic target.
University Hospital Bonn1, University of California, Riverside2, Harvard University3, Case Western Reserve University4, University of Illinois at Chicago5, European Institute6, Stanford University7, VA Palo Alto Healthcare System8, Spanish National Research Council9, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute10, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology11, University of California, Los Angeles12, University of Southern Denmark13, University of Cambridge14, University of the Basque Country15, Ikerbasque16, University of Manchester17, RIKEN Brain Science Institute18, University of Eastern Finland19, University of Bonn20, University of Massachusetts Medical School21, Center of Advanced European Studies and Research22, University of Southern California23, University of South Florida24, Duke University25, Southampton General Hospital26, Moorgreen Hospital27, University of Southampton28, Louisiana State University29, Imperial College London30, Centre national de la recherche scientifique31, Karolinska Institutet32, Max Planck Society33, University of Tübingen34, University of Groningen35, University of Colorado Denver36, Douglas Mental Health University Institute37
01 Apr 2015-Lancet Neurology
TL;DR: Genome-wide analysis suggests that several genes that increase the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease encode factors that regulate glial clearance of misfolded proteins and the inflammatory reaction.
Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to disease progression and severity. Genome-wide analysis suggests that several genes that increase the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease encode factors that regulate glial clearance of misfolded proteins and the inflammatory reaction. External factors, including systemic inflammation and obesity, are likely to interfere with immunological processes of the brain and further promote disease progression. Modulation of risk factors and targeting of these immune mechanisms could lead to future therapeutic or preventive strategies for Alzheimer's disease.
TL;DR: It is concluded that transcript levels by themselves are not sufficient to predict protein levels in many scenarios and to thus explain genotype-phenotype relationships and that high-quality data quantifying different levels of gene expression are indispensable for the complete understanding of biological processes.
Abstract: The question of how genomic information is expressed to determine phenotypes is of central importance for basic and translational life science research and has been studied by transcriptomic and proteomic profiling. Here, we review the relationship between protein and mRNA levels under various scenarios, such as steady state, long-term state changes, and short-term adaptation, demonstrating the complexity of gene expression regulation, especially during dynamic transitions. The spatial and temporal variations of mRNAs, as well as the local availability of resources for protein biosynthesis, strongly influence the relationship between protein levels and their coding transcripts. We further discuss the buffering of mRNA fluctuations at the level of protein concentrations. We conclude that transcript levels by themselves are not sufficient to predict protein levels in many scenarios and to thus explain genotype-phenotype relationships and that high-quality data quantifying different levels of gene expression are indispensable for the complete understanding of biological processes.
01 Jun 2015-Nature Reviews Neuroscience
TL;DR: As inflammation in AD primarily concerns the innate immune system — unlike in 'typical' neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis and encephalitides — the concept of neuroinflammation in AD may need refinement.
Abstract: The past two decades of research into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) have been driven largely by the amyloid hypothesis; the neuroinflammation that is associated with AD has been assumed to be merely a response to pathophysiological events. However, new data from preclinical and clinical studies have established that immune system-mediated actions in fact contribute to and drive AD pathogenesis. These insights have suggested both novel and well-defined potential therapeutic targets for AD, including microglia and several cytokines. In addition, as inflammation in AD primarily concerns the innate immune system - unlike in 'typical' neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis and encephalitides - the concept of neuroinflammation in AD may need refinement.