Bio: Manu Santhanam is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cement & Portland cement. The author has an hindex of 33, co-authored 130 publications receiving 3973 citations. Previous affiliations of Manu Santhanam include Indian Institutes of Technology & Purdue University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the experimental investigation carried out on high strength concrete reinforced with hybrid fibres up to a volume fraction of 0.5% was carried out for concrete prepared using different hybrid fibre combinations.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the experimental investigation carried out on high strength concrete reinforced with hybrid fibres (combination of hooked steel and a non-metallic fibre) up to a volume fraction of 0.5%. The mechanical properties, namely, compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and flexural toughness were studied for concrete prepared using different hybrid fibre combinations – steel–polypropylene, steel–polyester and steel–glass. The flexural properties were studied using four point bending tests on beam specimens as per Japanese Concrete Institute (JCI) recommendations. Fibre addition was seen to enhance the pre-peak as well as post-peak region of the load–deflection curve, causing an increase in flexural strength and toughness, respectively. Addition of steel fibres generally contributed towards the energy absorbing mechanism (bridging action) whereas, the non-metallic fibres resulted in delaying the formation of micro-cracks. Compared to other hybrid fibre reinforced concretes, the flexural toughness of steel–polypropylene hybrid fibre concretes was comparable to steel fibre concrete. Increased fibre availability in the hybrid fibre systems (due to the lower densities of non-metallic fibres), in addition to the ability of non-metallic fibres to bridge smaller micro cracks, are suggested as the reasons for the enhancement in mechanical properties.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the effects of sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions on expansion and microstructure of different types of Portland cement mortars and reported that the expansion of mortars in sodium sulfate solution follows a two-stage process.
Abstract: This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effects of sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions on expansion and microstructure of different types of Portland cement mortars. The effects of using various sulfate concentrations and of using different temperatures are also reported. The results suggest that the expansion of mortars in sodium sulfate solution follows a two-stage process. In the initial stage, Stage 1, there is little expansion. This is followed by a sudden and rapid increase in the expansion in Stage 2. Microstructural studies suggest that the onset of expansion in Stage 2 corresponds to the appearance of cracks in the chemically unaltered interior of the mortar. Beyond this point, the expansion proceeds at an almost constant rate until the complete deterioration of the mortar specimen. In the case of magnesium sulfate attack, expansion occurs at a continually increasing rate. Microstructural studies suggest that a layer of brucite (magnesium hydroxide) on the surface forms almost immediately after the introduction of the specimens into the solution. The attack is then governed by the steady diffusion of sulfate ions across the brucite surface barrier. The ultimate failure of the specimen occurs as a result of the decalcification of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), and its conversion to magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H), after prolonged exposure to the solution. The effects of using various admixtures, and of changing the experimental variables such as the temperature and concentration of the solution, are also summarized in this paper. Models for the mechanism of the attack resulting from sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions will be presented in Part 2.
TL;DR: In this paper, the role of the cation in the sulfate solution, and the effects of formation of various products like gypsum, ettringite, and thaumasite, on the extent of damage need to be investigated.
Abstract: Sulfate attack research is at a critical stage. In spite of meaningful advances in the past few years, this problem is still not well understood. Due to its complicated mechanism, the reaction between cement hydration products and sulfate-bearing solutions manifests itself in a variety of ways. In order to provide adequate means for selection of materials for concrete exposed to such aggressive environments, additional research is necessary to further clarify the interaction between concrete and sulfate-bearing solutions. Specifically, the role of the cation in the sulfate solution, and the effects of formation of various products like gypsum, ettringite, and thaumasite, on the extent of damage need to be investigated. The available testing methods for sulfate attack have been subject to some criticism lately. Although these test methods can give an indication of the mechanisms involved in sulfate attack, prediction of field performance using lab studies is difficult. Efforts are needed to introduce appropriate changes in the tests in order to obtain field-like conditions in the laboratory. Combined with good monitoring methods, this would enable the prediction of service life of structures exposed to sulfate solutions. Recent advances in nondestructive testing techniques can be applied to the task of monitoring field structures, although there is a significant effort necessary to calibrate these methods for sulfate attack-related scenarios. In order to produce efficient concrete designs for service in aggressive environments, it is imperative to develop reliable models. Modeling can help in selecting the appropriate materials and their proportions, as well as in determining service life parameters. As a first step towards modeling, critical parameters, which serve as an indicator of deterioration, need to be recognized and established. This paper discusses these issues, and cites some interesting recent developments. Finally, some recommendations for future studies are provided.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a mechanistic model for the mechanism of attack resulting from sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions, and the potential of these mechanistic models for use in service life prediction models has also been identified.
Abstract: The first paper in this two-part series [Cem. Concr. Res. 32 (2002) 915] summarized the experimental results from a comprehensive research study on sulfate attack. The current paper utilizes these results to develop models for the mechanism of attack resulting from sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions. Implications of changing the binder constituents or the experimental variables, such as concentration and temperature of the solution on the proposed mechanism, are also discussed. The potential of these mechanistic models for use in service life prediction models has also been identified. According to the proposed mechanism, the attack due to sodium sulfate solution progresses in stages. The expansion of an outer skin of the specimen leads to the formation of cracks in the interior region, which is chemically unaltered. With continued immersion, the surface skin disintegrates, and the sulfate solution is able to react with the hydration products in the cracked interior zone leading to the deposition of attack products in this zone. Now, this zone becomes the expanding zone, leading to further cracking of the interior of the mortar. In the case of magnesium sulfate solution, a layer of brucite (magnesium hydroxide) forms on the surface of the mortar specimen. The penetration of the sulfate solution then occurs by diffusion across this surface layer. As the attack progresses, the formation of attack products such as gypsum and ettringite in the paste under the surface leads to expansion and strength loss. The expansion also causes cracking in the surface brucite layer, and this leaves the mortar susceptible to direct attack by the magnesium sulfate solution. Conditions favorable for the decalcification of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) are thus created, and the ultimate destruction of the mortar occurs as a result of the conversion of C-S-H to the noncementitious magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H).
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an experimental study on the durability properties of self compacting concretes (SCCs) with high volume replacements of fly ash, and the results indicated that the SCCs showed higher permeable voids and water absorption than the vibrated normal concrete of the same strength grades.
Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the durability properties of self compacting concretes (SCCs) with high volume replacements of fly ash. Eight fly ash self compacting concretes of various strength grades were designed at desired fly ash percentages of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 85%, in comparison with five different mixtures of normal vibrated concretes (NCs) at equivalent strength grades. The durability properties were studied through the measurement of permeable voids, water absorption, acid attack and chloride permeation. The results indicated that the SCCs showed higher permeable voids and water absorption than the vibrated normal concretes of the same strength grades. However, in acid attack and chloride diffusion studies the high volume fly ash SCCs had significantly lower weight losses and chloride ion diffusion.
01 Jan 2016
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TL;DR: Sulfate attack is defined as deleterious action involving sulfate ions; if the reaction is physical, then, it is physical sulfate attack that takes place as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: External sulfate attack is not completely understood. Part I identifies the issues involved, pointing out disagreements, and distinguishes between the mere occurrence of chemical reactions of sulfates with hydrated cement paste and the damage or deterioration of concrete; only the latter are taken to represent sulfate attack. Furthermore, sulfate attack is defined as deleterious action involving sulfate ions; if the reaction is physical, then, it is physical sulfate attack that takes place. The discussion of the two forms of sulfate attack leads to a recommendation for distinct nomenclature. Sulfate attack on concrete structures in service is not widespread, and the amount of laboratory-based research seems to be disproportionately large. The mechanisms of attack by different sulfates—sodium, calcium, and magnesium—are discussed, including the issue of topochemical and through-solution reactions. The specific aspects of the action of magnesium sulfate are discussed, and the differences between laboratory conditions and field exposure are pointed out. Part II discusses the progress of sulfate attack and its manifestations. This is followed by a discussion of making sulfate-resisting concrete. One of the measures is to use Type V cement, and this topic is extensively discussed. Likewise, the influence of w/c on sulfate resistance is considered. The two parameters are not independent of one another. Moreover, the cation in the sulfate salt has a strong bearing on the efficiency of the Type V cement. Recent interpretations of the Bureau of Reclamation tests, both long term and accelerated, are evaluated, and it appears that they need reworking. Part III reviews the standards and guides for the classification of the severity of exposure of structures to sulfates and points out the lack of calibration of the various classes of exposure. A particular problem is the classification of soils because much depends on the extraction ratio of sulfate in the soil: there is a need for a standardized approach. Taking soil samples is discussed, with particular reference to interpreting highly variable contents of sulfates. The consequences of disturbed drainage of the soil adjacent to foundations and of excessive irrigation, coupled with the use of fertilizer, are described. Whether concrete has undergone sulfate attack can be established by determining the change in the compressive strength since the time of placing the concrete. The rejection of this method and the reliance on determining the tensile strength of concrete because of “layered damage” are erroneous. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) should not be the primary, and certainly not the first, method of determining whether sulfate attack has occurred. Mathematical modeling will be of help in the future but, at present, cannot provide guidance on the sulfate resistance of concrete in structures. Part IV presents conclusions and an overview of the situation, with consideration of future improvements. Appendix A contains the classification of exposure to sulfate given by various codes and guides.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the durability of geopolymer materials manufactured using class F fly ash and alkaline activators when exposed to a sulfate environment and found that the most significant deterioration was observed in the sodium sulfate solution and it appeared to be connected to migration of alkalies into solution.
Abstract: This paper presents an investigation into the durability of geopolymer materials manufactured using class F fly ash and alkaline activators when exposed to a sulfate environment. Three tests were used to determine resistance of geopolymer materials. The tests involved immersions for a period of 5 months into 5% solutions of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, and a solution of 5% sodium sulfate+5% magnesium sulfate. The evolution of weight, compressive strength, products of degradation and microstructural changes were studied. In the sodium sulfate solution, significant fluctuations of strength occurred with strength reduction 18% in the 8FASS material prepared with sodium silicate and 65% in the 8FAK material prepared with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide as activators, while 4% strength increase was measured in the 8FA specimens activated by sodium hydroxide. In the magnesium sulfate solution, 12% and 35% strength increase was measured in the 8FA and 8FAK specimens, respectively; and 24% strength decline was measured in the 8FASS samples. The most significant deterioration was observed in the sodium sulfate solution and it appeared to be connected to migration of alkalies into solution. In the magnesium sulfate solution, migration of alkalies into the solution and diffusion of magnesium and calcium to the subsurface areas was observed in the specimens prepared using sodium silicate and a mixture of sodium and potassium hydroxides as activators. The least strength changes were found in the solution of 5% sodium sulfate+5% magnesium sulfate. The material prepared using sodium hydroxide had the best performance, which was attributed to its stable cross-linked aluminosilicate polymer structure.
TL;DR: In this paper, the mechanisms that govern the transport of ions, moisture, and gas are described, and different chemical degradation phenomena are reviewed, such as sulfate attack from external sources and formation of ettringite and thaumasite.
Abstract: While interacting with its service environment, concrete often undergoes significant alterations that often have significant adverse consequences on its engineering properties. As a result, the durability of hydrated cement systems and their constituent phases has received significant attention from scientists and engineers. Cement paste deterioration by detrimental chemical reactions is discussed. First, the mechanisms that govern the transport of ions, moisture and gas are described. Then, different chemical degradation phenomena are reviewed. Microstructural alterations resulting from exposure to chlorides and carbon dioxide are discussed. Sulfate attack from external sources is described including processes resulting in the formation of ettringite and thaumasite. The mineralogy of Portland cement is sensitive to temperature and thermal cycling, particularly during the early hydration period.
TL;DR: The Cemdata18 database as mentioned in this paper contains thermodynamic data for common cement hydrates such as C-S-H, AFm and AFt phases, hydrogarnet, hydrotalcite, zeolites, and M-S -H that are valid over temperatures ranging from 0 to at least 100°C.
Abstract: Thermodynamic modelling can reliably predict hydrated cement phase assemblages and chemical compositions, including their interactions with prevailing service environments, provided an accurate and complete thermodynamic database is used. Here, we summarise the Cemdata18 database, which has been developed specifically for hydrated Portland, calcium aluminate, calcium sulfoaluminate and blended cements, as well as for alkali-activated materials. It is available in GEMS and PHREEQC computer program formats, and includes thermodynamic properties determined from various experimental data published in recent years. Cemdata18 contains thermodynamic data for common cement hydrates such as C-S-H, AFm and AFt phases, hydrogarnet, hydrotalcite, zeolites, and M-S-H that are valid over temperatures ranging from 0 to at least 100 °C. Solid solution models for AFm, AFt, C-S-H, and M-S-H are also included in the Cemdata18 database.