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Marcelo A. Soto

Bio: Marcelo A. Soto is an academic researcher from Federico Santa María Technical University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Brillouin scattering & Fiber optic sensor. The author has an hindex of 30, co-authored 189 publications receiving 3353 citations. Previous affiliations of Marcelo A. Soto include École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne & Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A figure-of-merit is proposed to fairly compare the performance of Brillouin distributed sensing systems and offers the research community and potential users the possibility to evaluate with an objective metric the real performance gain resulting from any proposed configuration.
Abstract: A thorough analysis of the key factors impacting on the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors is presented. An analytical expression is derived to estimate the error on the determination of the Brillouin peak gain frequency, based for the first time on real experimental conditions. This expression is experimentally validated, and describes how this frequency uncertainty depends on measurement parameters, such as Brillouin gain linewidth, frequency scanning step and signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the model leading to this expression and considering the limitations imposed by nonlinear effects and pump depletion, a figure-of-merit is proposed to fairly compare the performance of Brillouin distributed sensing systems. This figure-of-merit offers to the research community and to potential users the possibility to evaluate with an objective metric the real performance gain resulting from any proposed configuration.

318 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Compared to conventional BOTDA sensors, optical coding provides a significant sensing-range enhancement, allowing for temperature and strain measurements with 1 m spatial resolution over 50 km of standard single-mode fiber, with an accuracy of 2.2 degrees C/44 muepsilon.
Abstract: In this Letter, we propose the use of optical pulse coding techniques for long-range distributed sensors based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). Compared to conventional BOTDA sensors, optical coding provides a significant sensing-range enhancement, allowing for temperature and strain measurements with 1 m spatial resolution over 50 km of standard single-mode fiber, with an accuracy of 2.2°C/44 μe, respectively.

230 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method to produce sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of very high quality is proposed based on the direct synthesis of a rectangular-shaped and phase-locked frequency comb that is highly flexible and can be easily integrated in communication systems, potentially offering a substantial increase in data transmission rates.
Abstract: Sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses possess a rectangular spectrum, enabling data to be encoded in a minimum spectral bandwidth and satisfying by essence the Nyquist criterion of zero inter-symbol interference (ISI). This property makes them very attractive for communication systems since data transmission rates can be maximized while the bandwidth usage is minimized. However, most of the pulse-shaping methods reported so far have remained rather complex and none has led to ideal sinc pulses. Here a method to produce sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of very high quality is proposed based on the direct synthesis of a rectangular-shaped and phase-locked frequency comb. The method is highly flexible and can be easily integrated in communication systems, potentially offering a substantial increase in data transmission rates. Further, the high quality and wide tunability of the reported sinc-shaped pulses can also bring benefits to many other fields, such as microwave photonics, light storage and all-optical sampling.

225 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An unprecedented boost in signal-to-noise ratio and measurement contrast is experimentally demonstrated and an approach for performance enhancement that exploits the high level of similitude and redundancy contained on the multidimensional information measured by distributed fibre sensors is proposed.
Abstract: Distributed optical fibre sensors possess the unique capability of measuring the spatial and temporal map of environmental quantities that can be of great interest for several field applications. Although existing methods for performance enhancement have enabled important progresses in the field, they do not take full advantage of all information present in the measured data, still giving room for substantial improvement over the state-of-the-art. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an approach for performance enhancement that exploits the high level of similitude and redundancy contained on the multidimensional information measured by distributed fibre sensors. Exploiting conventional image and video processing, an unprecedented boost in signal-to-noise ratio and measurement contrast is experimentally demonstrated. The method can be applied to any white-noise-limited distributed fibre sensor and can remarkably provide a 100-fold improvement in the sensor performance with no hardware modification.

221 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work proposes and experimentally demonstrate an ultimately optimized distributed fiber sensor capable of resolving 2100000 independent points, which corresponds to a one-order-of-magnitude improvement compared to the state- of-the-art.
Abstract: Distributed fiber sensing possesses the unique ability to measure the distributed profile of an environmental quantity along many tens of kilometers with spatial resolutions in the meter or even centimeter scale. This feature enables distributed sensors to provide a large number of resolved points using a single optical fiber. However, in current systems, this number has remained constrained to a few hundreds of thousands due to the finite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the measurements, which imposes significant challenges in the development of more performing sensors. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultimately optimized distributed fiber sensor capable of resolving 2100000 independent points, which corresponds to a one-order-of-magnitude improvement compared to the state-of-the-art. Using a Brillouin distributed fiber sensor based on phase-modulation correlation-domain analysis combined with temporal gating of the pump and time-domain acquisition, a spatial resolution of 8.3 mm is demonstrated over a distance of 17.5 km. The sensor design addresses the most relevant factors impacting the SNR and the performance of medium-to-long range sensors as well as of sub-meter spatial resolution schemes. This step record in the number of resolved points could be reached due to two theoretical models proposed and experimentally validated in this study: one model describes the spatial resolution of the system and its relation with the sampling interval, and the other describes the amplitude response of the sensor, providing an accurate estimation of the SNR of the measurements. A distributed fiber sensor has been developed that can resolve more than 2 million points along its length. The system, built by Andrey Denisov and co-workers from Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, offers a spatial resolution of just 8.3 mm over a distance of 17.5 km. This has been achieved by combining phase-modulation correlation-domain analysis with temporal gating of the pump signal and a theoretical model to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio. The measurement time varies cubically with the number of sample points. Consequently, a measurement of 300 000 points corresponding to a resolution of 5 cm takes only 4 min. Thus, the researchers say that a coarse scan of the whole fiber can be quickly made prior to a finer resolution scan of the region of interest.

143 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
26 Jun 2012-Sensors
TL;DR: A sensor with centimeter spatial resolution and high precision measurement of temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence can find applications in aerospace smart structures, material processing, and the characterization of optical materials and devices.
Abstract: Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman scatterings in fibers result from the interaction of photons with local material characteristic features like density, temperature and strain. For example an acoustic/mechanical wave generates a dynamic density variation; such a variation may be affected by local temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence. By detecting changes in the amplitude, frequency and phase of light scattered along a fiber, one can realize a distributed fiber sensor for measuring localized temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence over lengths ranging from meters to one hundred kilometers. Such a measurement can be made in the time domain or frequency domain to resolve location information. With coherent detection of the scattered light one can observe changes in birefringence and beat length for fibers and devices. The progress on state of the art technology for sensing performance, in terms of spatial resolution and limitations on sensing length is reviewed. These distributed sensors can be used for disaster prevention in the civil structural monitoring of pipelines, bridges, dams and railroads. A sensor with centimeter spatial resolution and high precision measurement of temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence can find applications in aerospace smart structures, material processing, and the characterization of optical materials and devices.

1,011 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Apr 2011-Sensors
TL;DR: The progress on improving sensing performance parameters like spatial resolution, sensing length limitation and simultaneous temperature and strain measurement is reviewed.
Abstract: Brillouin scattering in optical fiber describes the interaction of an electro-magnetic field (photon) with a characteristic density variation of the fiber. When the electric field amplitude of an optical beam (so-called pump wave), and another wave is introduced at the downshifted Brillouin frequency (namely Stokes wave), the beating between the pump and Stokes waves creates a modified density change via the electrostriction effect, resulting in so-called the stimulated Brillouin scattering. The density variation is associated with a mechanical acoustic wave; and it may be affected by local temperature, strain, and vibration which induce changes in the fiber effective refractive index and sound velocity. Through the measurement of the static or dynamic changes in Brillouin frequency along the fiber one can realize a distributed fiber sensor for local temperature, strain and vibration over tens or hundreds of kilometers. This paper reviews the progress on improving sensing performance parameters like spatial resolution, sensing length limitation and simultaneous temperature and strain measurement. These kinds of sensors can be used in civil structural monitoring of pipelines, bridges, dams, and railroads for disaster prevention. Analogous to the static Bragg grating, one can write a moving Brillouin grating in fibers, with the lifetime of the acoustic wave. The length of the Brillouin grating can be controlled by the writing pulses at any position in fibers. Such gratings can be used to measure changes in birefringence, which is an important parameter in fiber communications. Applications for this kind of sensor can be found in aerospace, material processing and fine structures.

491 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work is focused on a review of three types of distributed optical fiber sensors which are based on Rayleigh, Brillouin, and Raman scattering, and use various demodulation schemes, including optical time-domain reflectometry, optical frequency-domainreflectometry, and related schemes.
Abstract: Over the past few decades, optical fibers have been widely deployed to implement various applications in high-speed long-distance telecommunication, optical imaging, ultrafast lasers, and optical sensors. Distributed optical fiber sensors characterized by spatially resolved measurements along a single continuous strand of optical fiber have undergone significant improvements in underlying technologies and application scenarios, representing the highest state of the art in optical sensing. This work is focused on a review of three types of distributed optical fiber sensors which are based on Rayleigh, Brillouin, and Raman scattering, and use various demodulation schemes, including optical time-domain reflectometry, optical frequency-domain reflectometry, and related schemes. Recent developments of various distributed optical fiber sensors to provide simultaneous measurements of multiple parameters are analyzed based on their sensing performance, revealing an inherent trade-off between performance parameters such as sensing range, spatial resolution, and sensing resolution. This review highlights the latest progress in distributed optical fiber sensors with an emphasis on energy applications such as energy infrastructure monitoring, power generation system monitoring, oil and gas pipeline monitoring, and geothermal process monitoring. This review aims to clarify challenges and limitations of distributed optical fiber sensors with the goal of providing a pathway to push the limits in distributed optical fiber sensing for practical applications.

329 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A figure-of-merit is proposed to fairly compare the performance of Brillouin distributed sensing systems and offers the research community and potential users the possibility to evaluate with an objective metric the real performance gain resulting from any proposed configuration.
Abstract: A thorough analysis of the key factors impacting on the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors is presented. An analytical expression is derived to estimate the error on the determination of the Brillouin peak gain frequency, based for the first time on real experimental conditions. This expression is experimentally validated, and describes how this frequency uncertainty depends on measurement parameters, such as Brillouin gain linewidth, frequency scanning step and signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the model leading to this expression and considering the limitations imposed by nonlinear effects and pump depletion, a figure-of-merit is proposed to fairly compare the performance of Brillouin distributed sensing systems. This figure-of-merit offers to the research community and to potential users the possibility to evaluate with an objective metric the real performance gain resulting from any proposed configuration.

318 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The theoretical fundamentals of fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers (OPA) are reviewed in this article, and their applications are discussed in the end the future research aspects are expected.
Abstract: The theoretical fundamentals of fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers(OPA) are reviewed,and their applications are discussed in this paper.In the end the future research aspects are expected.

267 citations