Bio: Mari Ostendorf is an academic researcher from University of Washington. The author has contributed to research in topics: Language model & Hidden Markov model. The author has an hindex of 57, co-authored 363 publications receiving 14783 citations. Previous affiliations of Mari Ostendorf include Carnegie Mellon University & Tohoku University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: In this study, segmental lengthening in the vicinity of prosodic boundaries is examined and found to be restricted to the rhyme of the syllable preceding the boundary.
Abstract: Numerous studies have indicated that prosodic phrase boundaries may be marked by a variety of acoustic phenomena including segmental lengthening. It has not been established, however, whether this lengthening is restricted to the immediate vicinity of the boundary, or if it extends over some larger region. In this study, segmental lengthening in the vicinity of prosodic boundaries is examined and found to be restricted to the rhyme of the syllable preceding the boundary. By using a normalized measure of segmental lengthening, and by compensating for differences in speaking rate, it is also shown that at least four distinct types of boundaries can be distinguished on the basis of this lengthening.
TL;DR: A general stochastic model is described that encompasses most of the models proposed in the literature for speech recognition, pointing out similarities in terms of correlation and parameter tying assumptions, and drawing analogies between segment models and HMMs.
Abstract: Many alternative models have been proposed to address some of the shortcomings of the hidden Markov model (HMM), which is currently the most popular approach to speech recognition. In particular, a variety of models that could be broadly classified as segment models have been described for representing a variable-length sequence of observation vectors in speech recognition applications. Since there are many aspects in common between these approaches, including the general recognition and training problems, it is useful to consider them in a unified framework. The paper describes a general stochastic model that encompasses most of the models proposed in the literature, pointing out similarities of the models in terms of correlation and parameter tying assumptions, and drawing analogies between segment models and HMMs. In addition, we summarize experimental results assessing different modeling assumptions and point out remaining open questions.
TL;DR: In a set of experiments involving 35 pairs of phonetically similar sentences representing seven types of structural contrasts, the perceptual evidence shows that some, but not all, of the pairs can be disambiguated on the basis of prosodic differences.
Abstract: Prosodic structure and syntactic structure are not identical; neither are they unrelated. Knowing when and how the two correspond could yield better quality speech synthesis, could aid in the disambiguation of competing syntactic hypotheses in speech understanding, and could lead to a more comprehensive view of human speech processing. In a set of experiments involving 35 pairs of phonetically similar sentences representing seven types of structural contrasts, the perceptual evidence shows that some, but not all, of the pairs can be disambiguated on the basis of prosodic differences. The phonological evidence relates the disambiguation primarily to boundary phenomena, although prominences sometimes play a role. Finally, phonetic analyses describing the attributes of these phonological markers indicate the importance of both absolute and relative measures.
TL;DR: A taxonomy of NSWs was developed on the basis of four rather distinct text types, and several general techniques including n-gram language models, decision trees and weighted finite-state transducers were investigated, demonstrating that a systematic treatment can lead to better results than have been obtained by the ad hoc treatments that have typically been used in the past.
Abstract: In addition to ordinary words and names, real text contains non-standard “words" (NSWs), including numbers, abbreviations, dates, currency amounts and acronyms. Typically, one cannot find NSWs in a dictionary, nor can one find their pronunciation by an application of ordinary “letter-to-sound" rules. Non-standard words also have a greater propensity than ordinary words to be ambiguous with respect to their interpretation or pronunciation. In many applications, it is desirable to “normalize" text by replacing the NSWs with the contextually appropriate ordinary word or sequence of words. Typical technology for text normalization involves sets of ad hoc rules tuned to handle one or two genres of text (often newspaper-style text) with the expected result that the techniques do not usually generalize well to new domains. The purpose of the work reported here is to take some initial steps towards addressing deficiencies in previous approaches to text normalization. We developed a taxonomy of NSWs on the basis of four rather distinct text types?news text, a recipes newsgroup, a hardware-product-specific newsgroup, and real-estate classified ads. We then investigated the application of several general techniques including n-gram language models, decision trees and weighted finite-state transducers to the range of NSW types, and demonstrated that a systematic treatment can lead to better results than have been obtained by the ad hoc treatments that have typically been used in the past. For abbreviation expansion in particular, we investigated both supervised and unsupervised approaches. We report results in terms of word-error rate, which is standard in speech recognition evaluations, but which has only occasionally been used as an overall measure in evaluating text normalization systems.
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).
TL;DR: This article provides an overview of progress and represents the shared views of four research groups that have had recent successes in using DNNs for acoustic modeling in speech recognition.
Abstract: Most current speech recognition systems use hidden Markov models (HMMs) to deal with the temporal variability of speech and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to determine how well each state of each HMM fits a frame or a short window of frames of coefficients that represents the acoustic input. An alternative way to evaluate the fit is to use a feed-forward neural network that takes several frames of coefficients as input and produces posterior probabilities over HMM states as output. Deep neural networks (DNNs) that have many hidden layers and are trained using new methods have been shown to outperform GMMs on a variety of speech recognition benchmarks, sometimes by a large margin. This article provides an overview of this progress and represents the shared views of four research groups that have had recent successes in using DNNs for acoustic modeling in speech recognition.
TL;DR: As a result of this grant, the researchers have now published on CDROM a corpus of over 4 million words of running text annotated with part-of- speech (POS) tags, which includes a fully hand-parsed version of the classic Brown corpus.
Abstract: : As a result of this grant, the researchers have now published oil CDROM a corpus of over 4 million words of running text annotated with part-of- speech (POS) tags, with over 3 million words of that material assigned skeletal grammatical structure This material now includes a fully hand-parsed version of the classic Brown corpus About one half of the papers at the ACL Workshop on Using Large Text Corpora this past summer were based on the materials generated by this grant
24 Aug 2012
TL;DR: This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach, and is suitable for upper-level undergraduates with an introductory-level college math background and beginning graduate students.
Abstract: Today's Web-enabled deluge of electronic data calls for automated methods of data analysis. Machine learning provides these, developing methods that can automatically detect patterns in data and then use the uncovered patterns to predict future data. This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach. The coverage combines breadth and depth, offering necessary background material on such topics as probability, optimization, and linear algebra as well as discussion of recent developments in the field, including conditional random fields, L1 regularization, and deep learning. The book is written in an informal, accessible style, complete with pseudo-code for the most important algorithms. All topics are copiously illustrated with color images and worked examples drawn from such application domains as biology, text processing, computer vision, and robotics. Rather than providing a cookbook of different heuristic methods, the book stresses a principled model-based approach, often using the language of graphical models to specify models in a concise and intuitive way. Almost all the models described have been implemented in a MATLAB software package--PMTK (probabilistic modeling toolkit)--that is freely available online. The book is suitable for upper-level undergraduates with an introductory-level college math background and beginning graduate students.