Maria Jafar Khan
Other affiliations: University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
Bio: Maria Jafar Khan is an academic researcher from Government College University, Faisalabad. The author has contributed to research in topics: Adsorption & Aqueous solution. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 56 citations. Previous affiliations of Maria Jafar Khan include University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of recent findings on the pretreatment for the conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel and value-added products is presented, where different pretreatment methods have been categorized as physical, chemical, biological, physicochemical, and combined.
Abstract: Many countries in the world aim to achieve sustainable development goals by 2030 following ambitious climate change mitigation, and thus, the concept of sustainable biorefinery has attracted immense research and development around the world. The concept of the biorefinery is centrally based on the conversion of biomass into biofuels and value-added products. Nevertheless, lowering the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic matrix in a cost-effective and environmentally benign manner is a crucial pretreatment step. Different pretreatment methods have been categorized as physical, chemical, biological, physicochemical, and combined. Recently, some novel ionic liquids have also emerged as promising sustainable pretreatment solutions for use of lignocellulosic waste on a large scale. This review briefly presents recent findings on the pretreatment for the conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel and value-added products.
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors reported bio-synthesis of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles by Leucophyllum frutescens leaf extract-mediated reaction along with the study of morphological, optical, structural features and their photocatalytic dye degradation activity of synthesized nanoparticles.
TL;DR: In this article, a comparative study for wood, sewage sludge, and newspaper print pyrolysis was conducted to predict the optimum parameters for bio-oil production in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.
Abstract: Thermo-kinetic models for biomass pyrolysis were simulated under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions to predict the optimum parameters for bio-oil production. A comparative study for wood, sewage sludge, and newspaper print pyrolysis was conducted. The models were numerically solved by using the fourth order Runge–Kutta method in Matlab-7. It was also observed that newspaper print acquired least pyrolysis time to attain optimum bio-oil yield followed by wood and sewage sludge under the identical conditions of temperature and heating rate. Thus, at 10 K/min, the optimum pyrolysis time was 21.0, 23.8, and 42.6 min for newspaper print, wood, and sewage sludge, respectively, whereas the maximum bio-oil yield predicted was 68, 52, and 36%, respectively.
TL;DR: In this article , the ability of sustainable bio-waste os sepiae (cuttlefish bone, CFB) as an effective adsorbent for the removal of boron from water was explored.
Abstract: The occurrence of boron in low concentration is essential; however, a higher concentration of boron source in water has a toxic effect on humans as well as have retard effect on agricultural plant growth. Thus, the affordable and facile method to remediate water from higher boron concentrations is highly demanded. This report explores the ability of naturally occurring sustainable bio-waste os sepiae (cuttlefish bone, CFB) as an effective adsorbent for the removal of boron from water. Chemical activation of the os sepiae powder was examined to improve the efficiency of boron adsorption. A batch adsorption study for boron considering various parameters such as chemical modification of os sepiae, pH, initial boron concentration, and the temperature was scrutinized. Untreated (CFB), alkali-treated (CFB-D) and acid-treated (CFB-A) os sepiae powders were investigated and the adsorption capacities reached up to 53.8 ± 0.04 mg/g, 66.4 ± 0.02 mg/g and 69.8 ± 0.02 mg/g, respectively, at optimal pH 8 and 25 °C. Boron adsorption by CFB, CFB-D, and CFB-A were well fitted with the linear Freundlich adsorption isotherm model with a correlation coefficient of 99.4%, 99.8%, and 99.7% respectively. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of boron by CFB is an exothermic process and more feasible at a lower temperature around 25 °C. Moreover, detailed morphological and chemical characterization of the influence of adsorbed boron on adsorbents was conducted and discussed. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis spectra confirms the involvement of various functional groups including amino, carbonate (CO3)2-, and hydroxyl groups on the adsorbent in the adsorption mechanisms for boron removal. The results indicate that CFB can be an excellent example for the recycling and reuse of biowaste for water remediation.
TL;DR: In this article , graphitic carbon nitride-fabricated metal tungstate nanocomposites are synthesized by the hydrothermal method to study their applications in catalysis, electrochemical sensing, and water splitting for hydrogen production.
Abstract: Hydrogen is a great sourcez of energy due to having zero emission of carbon-based contents. It is found primarily in water, which is abundant and renewable. For electrochemical splitting of water molecules, it is necessary to use catalytic materials that minimize energy consumption. As a famous carbon material, graphitic carbon nitride, with its excellent physicochemical properties and diversified functionalities, presents great potential in electrocatalytic sensing. In the present work, graphitic carbon nitride-fabricated metal tungstate nanocomposites are synthesized by the hydrothermal method to study their applications in catalysis, electrochemical sensing, and water splitting for hydrogen production. Nanocomposites using different metals, such as cobalt, manganese, strontium, tin, and nickel, were used as a precursor are synthesized via the hydrothermal process. The synthesized materials (g-C3N4/NiWO4, g-C3N4/MnWO4, g-C3N4/CoWO4, g-C3N4/SnWO4, g-C3N4/SrWO4) were characterized using different techniques, such as FTIR and XRD. The presence of a functional groups between the metal and tungstate groups was confirmed by the FTIR spectra. All the nanocomposites show a tungstate peak at 600 cm−1, while the vibrational absorption bands for metals appear in the range of 400–600 cm−1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the characteristic peaks matched with the JCPDS in the literature, which confirmed the successful formation of all nanocomposites. The electrochemical active surface area is calculated by taking cyclic voltammograms of the potassium–ferrocyanide redox couple. Among the entire series of metal tungstate, the g-C3N4/NiWO4 has a large surface area owing to the high conductive properties towards water oxidation. In order to study the electrocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized materials, electrochemical water splitting is performed by cyclic voltammetry in alkaline medium. All the synthesized materials proved to be efficient catalysts with enhanced conductive properties towards water oxidation. Among the entire series, g-C3N4-NiWO4 is a very efficient electrocatalyst owing to its higher active surface area and conductive activity. The order of electrocatalytic sensing of the different composites is: g-C3N4-NiWO4 > g-C3N4-SrWO4 > g-C3N4-CoWO4 > g-C3N4-SnWO4 > g-C3N4-MnWO4. Studies on electrochemically synthesized electrocatalysts revealed their catalytic activity, indicating their potential as electrode materials for direct hydrogen evolution for power generation.
TL;DR: In this paper, the recent findings regarding the application of various pretreatment techniques such as chemical, physical and biological methods for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass have been reviewed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of steam explosion and subcritical water hydrolysis as two promising hydrothermal technologies for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.
TL;DR: In view of dominance of ethanol organosolv with high delignification yields and high-purity of the recovered cellulose-rich fractions, close R & D collaboration with 1st generation ethanol plants might boost commercialization.
TL;DR: This review describes the advances in the area of green IL-related research and emphasizes the new conceptual development of ILs in pharmaceutics and medicine, stimulating the understanding of innovative technologies in IL-based drug delivery systems.
TL;DR: In this paper, an overview of the reductive valorization of lignocellulosic biomass via lignin-first biorefinery approach is presented, with particular emphasis on the fundamental catalytic reactions involved in the extraction and depolymerization of Lignin and in the stabilization of the obtained phenolic units.
Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass, ranging from softwood to agriculture and forestry wastes, represents the most abundant resource for modern biorefinery. In the course of the last years, we have witnessed the rise of ‘reductive catalytic fractionation’ processes of lignocellulosics in which priority attention is given to lignin that is ‘first’ converted into aromatic feedstocks. This opinion outlines recent advances in the reductive valorization of lignocellulosic biomass via lignin-first biorefinery approach, with particular emphasis on the fundamental catalytic reactions involved in the extraction and depolymerization of lignin and in the stabilization of the obtained phenolic units. Finally, a brief overview on the further transformations of lignin-derived monolignols and phenolics into value-added chemicals, fuels, polymeric materials, and active pharmaceutical ingredients is presented.