Maria Júlia Pourchet
Bio: Maria Júlia Pourchet is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Reciprocal altruism & Norm (social). The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 4 publications receiving 274 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss some of the functions of the teeth indicated by these marks and suggest that tooth wear should be studied carefully in order to gain significant information about the activities of past populations.
Abstract: Studies of hominid fossils have frequently reported that one of their outstanding characteristics is their heavily worn teeth. Many skeletal remains of modern man also show this condition of dental attrition, which is probably related to certain cultural activities. The varieties of foods consumed by primitive man and the specialized tool functions of the teeth have left significant marks in the form of worn occlusal surfaces over the dental arches. This paper discusses some of the functions of the teeth indicated by these marks and suggests that tooth wear should be studied carefully in order to gain significant information about the activities of past populations.
TL;DR: Hallowell's approach permits the building of a thrid but complementary explanation based on selection for the ability to internalize others and to attend to their representations even in the absence of their prototypes.
Abstract: A. I. Hallowell tried to turn anthropology towards a sociobiology while the former field was still strongly opposed to any consideration of the evolution of human behavior. His work is of more than historical interest, however, because he stressed the evolution of the human ability to internalize social norms and evaluate self and others in terms of them. This ability is the basis of our species's trait of cultural rather than biological adaptation to diverse ecological settings. Sociobiologists have dealt with the evolution of norm acquisition under the rubric of "altruism." Insofar as adherence to norms either directly increases the fitnes of kin (kin selection) or indirectly increases the fitness of all participants (reciprocal altruism), both Hamilton and Trivers have offered explanations for adherence to social norms. Hallowell's approach permits the building of a thrid but complementary explanation based on selection for the ability to internalize others and to attend to their representations even i...
TL;DR: A multidisciplinary study of the Guaymi of western Panama was undertaken to confirm or disprove their apparent similarity to the Yanomama, inferred from allele frequencies for six polymorphic loci studied in the guaymi by Matson and colleagues in 1965.
Abstract: A multidisciplinary study of the Guaymi of western Panama was undertaken to confirm or disprove their apparent similarity to the Yanomama of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil, inferred from allele frequencies for six polymorphic loci studied in the Guaymi by Matson and colleagues in 1965. Gene frequencies were estimated from the present sample of 484, which is more than twice as large as the previous sample and appears to be completely independent of the latter. The findings replicate the gene frequencies obtained earlier, within the terror of resampling after a decade. Leukocytes were typed for A and B locus specificities of the HLA system in 22 Guaymi. A specificity (HLA Bw15) absent from the Yanomama is present in high frequency in the Guaymi. Elsewhere we have reported that a polymorphism of serum albumin in the Yanomama is not present in the Guaymi but that the Guaymi possess polymorphisms of acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase not present in the Yanomama. These findings make any close ev...
TL;DR: Tax's distinction between the bow and the hoe was discussed at a recent Schriftfest for action anthropology as discussed by the authors, where 20 former students and colleagues met in Panajachel, Guatemala, to discuss his contributions to their own growth and to that of the discipline.
Abstract: This is the report of a "Schriftfest" for Sol Tax. More than 20 former students and colleagues met in Panajachel, Guatemala, to discuss his contributions to their own growth and to that of the discipline. The papers presented focused on studies of North American Indians, Middle American Indians, and "Middle America." Discussion centered on Tax's distinction between the bow and the hoe, i.e., the differences between North American tribal peoples and Middle American peasants. Following this, there was extensive discussion of action anthropology, with special attention to its development over the past 20 years. Problems of values, power, boundaries, generalization, and bureaucracy were among those considered. The conference ended with a brief examination of the future for B.A.s in anthropology. The participants benefited enormously from Tax's presence, and his feedback was invaluable.
TL;DR: The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus as mentioned in this paper is a remarkable and strikingly original work which is published in German and English in parallel pages and it is difficult to appreciate the reason for this, seeing that the author is evidently familiar with our language and has himself carefully revised the proofs of the translation.
Abstract: 13 EADERS of Mr. Bertrand Russell's philosophical £v works know that one of his pupils before the outbreak of the war, an Austrian, Mr. Ludwig Wittgenstein, caused him to change his views in some important particulars. Curiosity can now be satisfied. The “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus “which Mr. Ogden has included in his new library of philosophy is a remarkable and strikingly original work. It is published in German and English in parallel pages. It is difficult to appreciate the reason for this, seeing that the author is evidently familiar with our language and has himself carefully revised the proofs of the translation. Also we should have liked to have the Tractatus without Mr. Russell's Introduction, not, we hasten to add, on account of any fault or shortcoming in that introduction, which is highly appreciative and in part a defence of himself, in part explanatory of the author, but for the reason that good wine needs no bush and that Mr. Russell's bush has the unfortunate effect of dulling the palate instead of whetting the appetite. In his penultimate sentence Mr. Russell says; “To have constructed a theory of logic which is not at any point obviously wrong is to have achieved a work of extraordinary difficulty and importance.” We agree, but how uninspiring when compared with Mr. Wittgenstein's own statement of aim: “What can be said at all can be said clearly, and whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent.” Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. By Ludwig Wittgenstein. (International Library of Psychology, Philosophy and Scientific Method.) Pp. 189. (London: Kegan Paul and Co., Ltd.; New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., Inc., 1922.) 10s. 6d. net.
TL;DR: The authors exploit newly available massive natu- ral language corpora to capture the language as a language evolution phenomenon. But their work is limited to a subset of the languages in the corpus.
TL;DR: Dental wear is concluded to be a highly reliable and important indicator of adult age at death for skeletal populations if seriation procedures are employed.
Abstract: Modal patterns of occlusal attrition are presented for the Libben population based on a sample of 332 adult dentitions. Maxillas and mandibles were reviewed independently by seriation prior to assessment of complete dentitions. The Spearman rank order coefficient for upper and lower dentitions was .96. Wear patterns are very similar to those reported by Murphy (1959a: Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 17:167-178) for Australian aborigines. There were no significant sexual differences in wear rate. Dental wear is concluded to be a highly reliable and important indicator of adult age at death for skeletal populations if seriation procedures are employed.
12 Jun 2000
TL;DR: The method and theory for using tooth morphology in reconstructions of late Pleistocene and Holocene human population history and tooth morphology and population history, and its applications, are established.
Abstract: Acknowledgements Prologue 1. Dental anthropology and morphology 2. Description and classification of permanent crown and root traits 3. Biological considerations: ontogeny, asymmetry, sex dimorphism and intertrait association 4. Genetics of morphological trait expression 5. Geographic variation in toot crown and root morphology 6. Establishing method and theory for using tooth morphology in reconstructions of late Pleistocene and Holocene human population history 7. Tooth morphology and population history Epilogue Appendices References Index.