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Mariam Ali

Bio: Mariam Ali is an academic researcher from Imperial College London. The author has contributed to research in topics: Perioperative & Randomized controlled trial. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 13 publications receiving 1179 citations. Previous affiliations of Mariam Ali include Drexel University & Beaumont Hospital.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the separation of carbon dioxide from typical power plant exhaust gases using the adsorption process, which is believed to be one of the economic and least interfering ways for post-combustion carbon capture as it can accomplish the objective with very few modifications to power plants.

469 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The potential benefits of SILS include superior cosmesis and possibly shorter operative time, lower costs, and a shortened time to full physical recovery.
Abstract: This review aimed to determine the role of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) in abdominal and pelvic operations. The Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were systematically searched until October 2009 using “single-incision laparoscopic surgery” and related terms as keywords. References from retrieved articles were reviewed to broaden the search The study included case reports, case series, and empirical studies that reported SILS in abdominal and pelvic operations. Number of patients, type of instruments, operative time, blood loss, conversion rate, length of hospital stay, length of follow-up evaluation, and complications were extracted from the reviewed items The review included 102 studies classified as level 4 evidence. Most of these studies investigated SILS in cholecystectomy (n = 34), appendectomy (n = 24), and nephrectomy (n = 17). For these procedures, operative time, hospital stay, and complications were comparable with those of conventional laparoscopy. Conversion to conventional laparoscopy was seldom performed in cholecystectomy (range, 0–24%) and more frequent in appendectomy (range, 0–41%) and nephrectomy (range, 0–33%). The potential benefits of SILS include superior cosmesis and possibly shorter operative time, lower costs, and a shortened time to full physical recovery. Careful case selection and a low threshold of conversion to conventional laparoscopic surgery are essential. Multicenter, randomized, prospective studies are needed to compare short- and long-term outcome measures against those of conventional laparoscopic surgery.

154 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The positive association between obesity and colorectal adenoma prevalence demonstrates an underlying dose–response relationship according to BMI, which may help clarify the biological role of adiposity on coloreCTal tumor initiation and progression.

140 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was concluded that kanchi and other locally available materials might be used to increase the production of some species of fish, although further evaluation of production economics is required.
Abstract: The project evaluated the effect of installing scrap bamboo ('kanchi') as a substrate for periphyton on growth and production of the indigenous major carp calbaush, Labeo calbasu (Hamilton). The impacts of fish grazing on the periphyton community were also assessed. Six ponds were used, three of which were provided with kanchi poles (700 per pond, spaced 30 cm apart). Ponds were limed and fertilized and stocked with L. calbasu fingerlings (mean total length = 5.16 cm; mean weight = 2.10 g) at a rate of 10000 fingerlings ha(-1) (75 fish per pond). There were no statistically significant differences in water quality between treatments, although differences in phytoplankton community composition were observed. Zooplankton numbers were the same in both treatments. While there was clear evidence that periphyton was being exploited by the fish, Chlorophycae being most affected, grazing was insufficient to cause significant reductions in total periphyton densities. Fish survival and specific growth rates (SGRs) were significantly higher in ponds with substrates, production in treatments with and without scrap bamboo substrate being 712.90 and 399.11 kg ha(-1), respectively, over the 120-day period. However, production in both treatments was low in comparison with other studies, water temperatures (23.6-32.7 degrees C) being less than optimum for growth. It was concluded that kanchi and other locally available materials might be used to increase the production of some species of fish, although further evaluation of production economics is required.

111 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Michel W. Barsoum1, N. Tzenov1, Adam Procopio1, Tamer El-Raghy1, Mariam Ali1 
TL;DR: In this paper, the parabolic rate constants of the ternary compounds Ti 2 AlC, Ti 4 AlN 2.9, and Ti 3 AlC 2 are reported.
Abstract: In this, Part II of a two-part study, the oxidation kinetics in air of the ternary compounds Ti 2 AlC, Ti 2 AlC 0.5 N 0.5 , Ti 4 AlN 2.9 , and Ti 3 AlC 2 are reported. For the first two compounds, in the 1000-1100°C temperature range and for short times (20 h) the oxidation kinetics are parabolic. The parabolic rate constants are k x (m 2 /s) = 2.68 × 10 5 exp -491.5 (kJ/mol)/RT for Ti 2 AlC. and 2.55 × 10 5 exp - 458.7 (kJ/mol)/RT for Ti 2 AlC 0.5 N 0.5 . At 900°C, the kinetics are quasi-linear, and up to 100 h the outermost layers that form are almost pure rutile, dense, and protective. For the second pair, at short times ( 10) times. The presence of oxygen also reduces the decomposition (into TiX x and Al) temperatures of Ti 4 AlN 2.9 and Ti 3 AlC 2 from a T> 1400°C, to one less than 1100°C.

111 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These guidelines provide a roadmap for developing integrated, evidence-based, and patient-centered protocols for preventing and treating pain, agitation, and delirium in critically ill patients.
Abstract: Objective:To revise the “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Sustained Use of Sedatives and Analgesics in the Critically Ill Adult” published in Critical Care Medicine in 2002.Methods:The American College of Critical Care Medicine assembled a 20-person, multidisciplinary, multi-institutional task f

3,005 citations

Book
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the construction of Inquiry, the science of inquiry, and the role of data in the design of research.
Abstract: Part I: AN INTRODUCTION TO INQUIRY. 1. Human Inquiry and Science. 2. Paradigms, Theory, and Research. 3. The Ethics and Politics of Social Research. Part II: THE STRUCTURING OF INQUIRY: QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE. 4. Research Design. 5. Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Measurement. 6. Indexes, Scales, and Typologies. 7. The Logic of Sampling. Part III: MODES OF OBSERVATION: QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE. 8. Experiments. 9. Survey Research. 10. Qualitative Field Research. 11. Unobtrusive Research. 12. Evaluation Research. Part IV: ANALYSIS OF DATA:QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE . 13. Qualitative Data Analysis. 14. Quantitative Data Analysis. 15. Reading and Writing Social Research. Appendix A. Using the Library. Appendix B. Random Numbers. Appendix C. Distribution of Chi Square. Appendix D. Normal Curve Areas. Appendix E. Estimated Sampling Error.

2,884 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Jun 2015
TL;DR: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the primary treatment modality in patients with severe OSAS, whereas oral appliances are also widely used in mild to moderate forms, and combining different treatment modalities such as CPAP and weight control is beneficial, but need to be evaluated in randomized controlled trials.
Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a common clinical condition in which the throat narrows or collapses repeatedly during sleep, causing obstructive sleep apnoea events. The syndrome is particularly prevalent in middle-aged and older adults. The mechanism by which the upper airway collapses is not fully understood but is multifactorial and includes obesity, craniofacial changes, alteration in upper airway muscle function, pharyngeal neuropathy and fluid shift towards the neck. The direct consequences of the collapse are intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia, recurrent arousals and increase in respiratory efforts, leading to secondary sympathetic activation, oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Excessive daytime sleepiness is a burden for the majority of patients. OSAS is also associated with cardiovascular co-morbidities, including hypertension, arrhythmias, stroke, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and overall increased cardiovascular mortality, as well as metabolic dysfunction. Whether treating sleep apnoea can fully reverse its chronic consequences remains to be established in adequately designed studies. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the primary treatment modality in patients with severe OSAS, whereas oral appliances are also widely used in mild to moderate forms. Finally, combining different treatment modalities such as CPAP and weight control is beneficial, but need to be evaluated in randomized controlled trials. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/Lwc6te.

647 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effects of anions, cations and functional groups on CO2 solubility and selectivity ofILs, as well as the studies on degradability of ILs are reviewed, and the recent developments on functionalized ILs, IL- based solvents, and IL-based membranes are discussed.
Abstract: The inherent structure tunability, good affinity with CO2, and nonvolatility of ionic liquids (ILs) drive their exploration and exploitation in CO2 separation field, and has attracted remarkable interest from both industries and academia. The aim of this Review is to give a detailed overview on the recent advances on IL-based materials, including pure ILs, IL-based solvents, and IL-based membranes for CO2 capture and separation from the viewpoint of molecule to engineering. The effects of anions, cations and functional groups on CO2 solubility and selectivity of ILs, as well as the studies on degradability of ILs are reviewed, and the recent developments on functionalized ILs, IL-based solvents, and IL-based membranes are also discussed. CO2 separation mechanism with IL-based solvents and IL-based membranes are explained by combining molecular simulation and experimental characterization. Taking into consideration of the applications and industrialization, the recent achievements and developments on the t...

613 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
04 May 2016-BMJ
TL;DR: There was a U shaped association between BMI and mortality in analyses with a greater potential for bias including all participants, current, former, or ever smokers, and in studies with a short duration of follow-up (<5 years or <10 years), or with moderate study quality scores.
Abstract: Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI) and the risk of all cause mortality, and to clarify the shape and the nadir of the dose-response curve, and the influence on the results of confounding from smoking, weight loss associated with disease, and preclinical disease. Data sources PubMed and Embase databases searched up to 23 September 2015. Study selection Cohort studies that reported adjusted risk estimates for at least three categories of BMI in relation to all cause mortality. Data synthesis Summary relative risks were calculated with random effects models. Non-linear associations were explored with fractional polynomial models. Results 230 cohort studies (207 publications) were included. The analysis of never smokers included 53 cohort studies (44 risk estimates) with >738 144 deaths and >9 976 077 participants. The analysis of all participants included 228 cohort studies (198 risk estimates) with >3 744 722 deaths among 30 233 329 participants. The summary relative risk for a 5 unit increment in BMI was 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.21; I 2 =95%, n=44) among never smokers, 1.21 (1.18 to 1.25; I 2 =93%, n=25) among healthy never smokers, 1.27 (1.21 to 1.33; I 2 =89%, n=11) among healthy never smokers with exclusion of early follow-up, and 1.05 (1.04 to 1.07; I 2 =97%, n=198) among all participants. There was a J shaped dose-response relation in never smokers (P non-linearity Conclusion Overweight and obesity is associated with increased risk of all cause mortality and the nadir of the curve was observed at BMI 23-24 among never smokers, 22-23 among healthy never smokers, and 20-22 with longer durations of follow-up. The increased risk of mortality observed in underweight people could at least partly be caused by residual confounding from prediagnostic disease. Lack of exclusion of ever smokers, people with prevalent and preclinical disease, and early follow-up could bias the results towards a more U shaped association.

583 citations