Bio: Marie Pirotta is an academic researcher from University of Melbourne. The author has contributed to research in topics: Randomized controlled trial & Acupuncture. The author has an hindex of 34, co-authored 152 publications receiving 4252 citations. Previous affiliations of Marie Pirotta include RMIT University & Monash University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The probiotics B infantis, S thermophilus, and B lactis significantly reduced NEC of Bell stage 2 or more in very preterm infants, but not definite late-onset sepsis or mortality.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Late-onset sepsis frequently complicates prematurity, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Probiotics may reduce mortality and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants, with unclear effect on late-onset sepsis. This study aimed to determine the effect of administering a specific combination of probiotics to very preterm infants on culture-proven late-onset sepsis. METHODS: A prospective multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial compared daily administration of a probiotic combination (Bifidobacterium infantis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis, containing 1 × 109 total organisms) with placebo (maltodextrin) in infants born before 32 completed weeks’ gestation weighing RESULTS: Between October 2007 and November 2011, 1099 very preterm infants from Australia and New Zealand were randomized. Rates of definite late-onset sepsis (16.2%), NEC of Bell stage 2 or more (4.4%), and mortality (5.1%) were low in controls, with high breast milk feeding rates (96.9%). No significant difference in definite late-onset sepsis or all-cause mortality was found, but this probiotic combination reduced NEC of Bell stage 2 or more (2.0% versus 4.4%; relative risk 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 0.93, P = .03; number needed to treat 43, 95% confidence interval 23 to 333). CONCLUSIONS: The probiotics B infantis, S thermophilus, and B lactis significantly reduced NEC of Bell stage 2 or more in very preterm infants, but not definite late-onset sepsis or mortality. Treatment with this combination of probiotics appears to be safe.
TL;DR: In patients older than 50 years with moderate or severe chronic knee pain, neither laser nor needle acupuncture conferred benefit over sham for pain or function, and the findings do not support acupuncture for these patients.
Abstract: RESULTS At 12 weeks and 1 year, 26 (9%) and 50 (18%) participants were lost to follow-up, respectively. Analyses showed neither needle nor laser acupuncture significantly improved pain (mean difference; −0.4 units; 95% CI, −1.2 to 0.4, and −0.1; 95% CI, −0.9 to 0.7, respectively) or function (−1.7; 95% CI, −6.1 to 2.6, and 0.5; 95% CI, −3.4 to 4.4, respectively) compared with sham at 12 weeks. Compared with control, needle and laser acupuncture resulted in modest improvements in pain (−1.1; 95% CI, −1.8 to −0.4, and −0.8; 95% CI, −1.5 to −0.1, respectively) at 12 weeks, but not at 1 year. Needle acupuncture resulted in modest improvement in function compared with control at 12 weeks (−3.9; 95% CI, −7.7 to −0.2) but was not significantly different from sham (−1.7; 95% CI, −6.1 to 2.6) and was not maintained at 1 year. There were no differences for most secondary outcomes and no serious adverse events.
TL;DR: To describe Victorian general practitioners' attitudes towards and use of a range of complementary therapies.
Abstract: Objectives To describe Victorian general practitioners' attitudes towards and use of a range of complementary therapies. Design A self-administered postal survey sent to a random sample of 800 general practitioners (GPs) in Victoria in July 1997. Participants 488 GPs (response rate, 64%). Main outcome measures GPs' knowledge; opinions about harmfulness and effectiveness; appropriateness for GPs to practise; perceived patient demand; need for undergraduate education; referral rates to complementary practitioners; and training in and practice of each therapy. Results Acupuncture, hypnosis and meditation are well accepted by the surveyed GPs, as over 80% have referred patients patients to practitioners of these therapies and nearly half have considered using them. General practitioners have trained in various therapies--meditation (34%), acupuncture (23%), vitamin and mineral therapy (23%), hypnosis (20%), herbal medicine (12%), chiropractic (8%), naturopathy (6%), homoeopathy (5%), spiritual healing (5%), osteopathy (4%), aroma-therapy (4%), and reflexology (2%). A quarter to a third were interested in training in chiropractic, herbal medicine, naturopathy and vitamin and mineral therapy. General practitioners appear to underestimate their patients' use of complementary therapies. Conclusions There is evidence in Australia of widespread acceptance of acupuncture, meditation, hypnosis and chiropractic by GPs and lesser acceptance of the other therapies. These findings generate an urgent need for evidence of these therapies' effectiveness.
TL;DR: The current use of conventional and complementary medicines in Australians aged ≥ 50 years and the benefits and risks of these medicines are explored.
Abstract: Objective To explore the current use of conventional and complementary medicines in Australians aged ≥ 50 years. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal survey sent to a random sample of 4500 Australians aged ≥ 50 years between June 2009 and February 2010. Main outcome measures Prevalence of medicines use, reasons for medicines use and sources of medicines. Results Response rate was 37.3%. Medicines use was very common; 87.1% of participants took one or more medicines and 43.3% took five or more in the previous 24 hours. Complementary medicines were used by 46.3% of participants, 87.4% of whom used both conventional and complementary medicines. The most commonly used medicines were antihypertensive agents (43.2% of participants), natural marine and animal products including fish oil and glucosamine (32.4%) and lipid-lowering agents (30.4%). Doctors recommended 79.3% of all medicines and 93.0% of conventional medicines. Pharmacists commonly recommended occasional medicines (ie, as needed), while friends, family and media most often influenced use of complementary medicines. Conclusions The use of multiple medicines is common and higher than reported in the 1995 National Health Survey. Today, much medicines use is to prevent future disease by influencing risk factors. High levels of polypharmacy highlight the need to support the safe and effective use of medicines in the community. Although doctors recommend or prescribe most medicines, self-directed medication use is common. This highlights the need for consumer access to accurate information and strategies to improve health literacy about medicines.
TL;DR: Nonmedicinal therapies along with chiropractic are widely accepted in Australia and can be considered mainstream, and better communication between patients and GPs about use of CTs is required to minimize the risk of adverse events.
Abstract: Methods: Australian general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes toward and use of a range of complementary therapies (CTs) were determined through a self-administered postal survey sent to a random sample of 2000 Australian GPs. The survey canvassed GPs' opinions as to the harmfulness and effectiveness of CTs; current levels of training and interest in further training; personal use of, and use in practice of, CTs; referrals to CT; practitioners; appropriateness for GPs to practice and for government regulation; perceived patient demand and the need for undergraduate education. Results: The response rate was 33.2%. Based on GPs' responses, complementary therapies could be classified into: nonmedicinal and nonmanipulative therapies, such as acupuncture, massage, meditation, yoga, and hypnosis, that were seen to be highly effective and safe; medicinal and manipulative therapies, including chiropractic, Chinese herbal medicine, osteopathy, herbal medicine, vitamin and mineral therapy, naturopathy, and homeopathy,...
TL;DR: Reading a book as this basics of qualitative research grounded theory procedures and techniques and other references can enrich your life quality.
Abstract: In undergoing this life, many people always try to do and get the best. New knowledge, experience, lesson, and everything that can improve the life will be done. However, many people sometimes feel confused to get those things. Feeling the limited of experience and sources to be better is one of the lacks to own. However, there is a very simple thing that can be done. This is what your teacher always manoeuvres you to do this one. Yeah, reading is the answer. Reading a book as this basics of qualitative research grounded theory procedures and techniques and other references can enrich your life quality. How can it be?
TL;DR: This meta-analysis of RCT and observational studies found that the use of probiotics was beneficial for the prevention of severe NEC, late-onset sepsis, and all-cause mortality in VLBW infants.
Abstract: Background: Over the last few years, probiotics have been one of the most studied interventions in neonatal medicine. Objectives:
TL;DR: Health researchers using postal questionnaires can improve the quality of their research by using the strategies shown to be effective in this systematic review, which includes more randomised controlled trials than any previously published review or meta-analysis.
Abstract: Objective: To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed: 292 randomised controlled trials including 258 315 participants Intervention reviewed: 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires. Main outcome measure: The proportion of completed or partially completed questionnaires returned. Results: The odds of response were more than doubled when a monetary incentive was used (odds ratio 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.27) and almost doubled when incentives were not conditional on response (1.71; 1.29 to 2.26). Response was more likely when short questionnaires were used (1.86; 1.55 to 2.24). Personalised questionnaires and letters increased response (1.16; 1.06 to 1.28), as did the use of coloured ink (1.39; 1.16 to 1.67). The odds of response were more than doubled when the questionnaires were sent by recorded delivery (2.21; 1.51 to 3.25) and increased when stamped return envelopes were used (1.26; 1.13 to 1.41) and questionnaires were sent by first class post (1.12; 1.02 to 1.23). Contacting participants before sending questionnaires increased response (1.54; 1.24 to 1.92), as did follow up contact (1.44; 1.22 to 1.70) and providing non-respondents with a second copy of the questionnaire (1.41; 1.02 to 1.94). Questionnaires designed to be of more interest to participants were more likely to be returned (2.44; 1.99 to 3.01), but questionnaires containing questions of a sensitive nature were less likely to be returned (0.92; 0.87 to 0.98). Questionnaires originating from universities were more likely to be returned than were questionnaires from other sources, such as commercial organisations (1.31; 1.11 to 1.54). Conclusions: Health researchers using postal questionnaires can improve the quality of their research by using the strategies shown to be effective in this systematic review. What is already known on this topic Postal questionnaires are widely used in the collection of data in epidemiological studies and health research Non-response to postal questionnaires reduces the effective sample size and can introduce bias What this study adds This systematic review includes more randomised controlled trials than any previously published review or meta-analysis no questionnaire response The review has identified effective ways to increase response to postal questionnaires The review will be updated regularly in the Cochrane Library
TL;DR: These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30-May 2, 2013.
Abstract: These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30-May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR-12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs.
TL;DR: Cervical cancer is the third most common female malignancy and shows a strong association with level of development, rates being at least four-fold higher in countries defined within the low ranking of the Human Development Index (HDI) compared with those in the very high category.
Abstract: The worldwide prevalence of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in women without cervical abnormalities is 11-12% with higher rates in sub-Saharan Africa (24%), Eastern Europe (21%) and Latin America (16%). The two most prevalent types are HPV16 (3.2%) and HPV18 (1.4%). Prevalence increases in women with cervical pathology in proportion to the severity of the lesion reaching around 90% in women with grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer. HPV infection has been identified as a definite human carcinogen for six types of cancer: cervix, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including the base of the tongue and tonsils). Estimates of the incidence of these cancers for 2008 due to HPV infection have been calculated globally. Of the estimated 12.7 million cancers occurring in 2008, 610,000 (Population Attributable Fraction [PAF]=4.8%) could be attributed to HPV infection. The PAF varies substantially by geographic region and level of development, increasing to 6.9% in less developed regions of the world, 14.2% in sub-Saharan Africa and 15.5% in India, compared with 2.1% in more developed regions, 1.6% in Northern America and 1.2% in Australia/New Zealand. Cervical cancer, for which the PAF is estimated to be 100%, accounted for 530,000 (86.9%) of the HPV attributable cases with the other five cancer types accounting for the residual 80,000 cancers. Cervical cancer is the third most common female malignancy and shows a strong association with level of development, rates being at least four-fold higher in countries defined within the low ranking of the Human Development Index (HDI) compared with those in the very high category. Similar disparities are evident for 5-year survival-less than 20% in low HDI countries and more than 65% in very high countries. There are five-fold or greater differences in incidence between world regions. In those countries for which reliable temporal data are available, incidence rates appear to be consistently declining by approximately 2% per annum. There is, however, a lack of information from low HDI countries where screening is less likely to have been successfully implemented. Estimates of the projected incidence of cervical cancer in 2030, based solely on demographic factors, indicate a 2% increase in the global burden of cervical cancer, i.e., in balance with the current rate of decline. Due to the relative small numbers involved, it is difficult to discern temporal trends for the other cancers associated with HPV infection. Genital warts represent a sexually transmitted benign condition caused by HPV infection, especially HPV6 and HPV11. Reliable surveillance figures are difficult to obtain but data from developed countries indicate an annual incidence of 0.1 to 0.2% with a peak occurring at teenage and young adult ages. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.