scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Marie T. Ruel

Bio: Marie T. Ruel is an academic researcher from International Food Policy Research Institute. The author has contributed to research in topics: Population & Malnutrition. The author has an hindex of 77, co-authored 300 publications receiving 22862 citations. Previous affiliations of Marie T. Ruel include University of Washington & Johns Hopkins University.


Papers
More filters
Journal Article
TL;DR: This chapter discusses zinc Nutrition, which focuses on dietary requirements and recommended intakes for zinc, and causes of zinc deficiency and groups at high risk.
Abstract: Chapter 1: Overview of Zinc Nutrition ............................................................................................................... S99 1.1 Biological functions of zinc ............................................................................................................................. S99 1.2 Tissue zinc distribution and reserves .............................................................................................................. S99 1.3 Zinc metabolism ........................................................................................................................................... S100 1.4 Importance of zinc for human health........................................................................................................... S101 1.5 Human zinc requirements............................................................................................................................. S105 1.5.1 Adult men ............................................................................................................................................. S106 1.5.2 Adult women......................................................................................................................................... S109 1.5.3 Children ................................................................................................................................................ S110 1.5.4 Pregnancy.............................................................................................................................................. S111 1.5.5 Lactation ............................................................................................................................................... S112 1.6 Dietary sources of zinc and suggested revisions of Recommended Daily Intakes .................................... S112 1.6.1 Dietary sources of zinc and factors affecting the proportion of zinc available for absorption ........ S112 1.6.2 Revised estimates of dietary requirements and recommended intakes for zinc ............................... S114 1.7 Zinc toxicity.................................................................................................................................................... S118 1.8 Causes of zinc deficiency and groups at high risk ....................................................................................... S121 1.9 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ S123

1,280 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed evidence of nutritional effects of programs in four sectors (agriculture, social safety nets, early child development, and schooling) and found that the nutritional effect of agricultural programs is inconclusive.

1,181 citations

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: Evidence of nutritional effects of programmes in four sectors--agriculture, social safety nets, early child development, and schooling, is reviewed, finding that nutrition-sensitive programmes can help scale up nutrition-specific interventions and create a stimulating environment in which young children can grow and develop to their full potential.
Abstract: Acceleration of progress in nutrition will require eff ective, large-scale nutrition-sensitive programmes that address key underlying determinants of nutrition and enhance the coverage and eff ectiveness of nutrition-specifi c interventions. We reviewed evidence of nutritional eff ects of programmes in four sectors—agriculture, social safety nets, early child development, and schooling. The need for investments to boost agricultural production, keep prices low, and increase incomes is undisputable; targeted agricultural programmes can complement these investments by supporting livelihoods, enhancing access to diverse diets in poor populations, and fostering women’s empowerment. However, evidence of the nutritional eff ect of agricultural programmes is inconclusive—except for vitamin A from biofortifi cation of orange sweet potatoes—largely because of poor quality evaluations. Social safety nets currently provide cash or food transfers to a billion poor people and victims of shocks (eg, natural disasters). Individual studies show some eff ects on younger children exposed for longer durations, but weaknesses in nutrition goals and actions, and poor service quality probably explain the scarcity of overall nutritional benefi ts. Combined early child development and nutrition interventions show promising additive or synergistic eff ects on child development—and in some cases nutrition—and could lead to substantial gains in cost, effi ciency, and eff ectiveness, but these programmes have yet to be tested at scale. Parental schooling is strongly associated with child nutrition, and the eff ectiveness of emerging school nutrition education programmes needs to be tested. Many of the programmes reviewed were not originally designed to improve nutrition yet have great potential to do so. Ways to enhance programme nutrition-sensitivity include: improve targeting; use conditions to stimulate participation; strengthen nutrition goals and actions; and optimise women’s nutrition, time, physical and mental health, and empowerment. Nutrition-sensitive programmes can help scale up nutrition-specifi c interventions and create a stimulating environment in which young children can grow and develop to their full potential.

1,131 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is an association between child dietary diversity and nutritional status that is independent of socioeconomic factors, and that dietary diversity may indeed reflect diet quality, which is suggested to be recommended for widespread use as an indicator of diet quality.
Abstract: Simple indicators reflecting diet quality for young children are needed both for programs and in some research contexts. Measures of dietary diversity are relatively simple and were shown to be associated with nutrient adequacy and nutritional status. However, dietary diversity also tends to increase with income and wealth; thus, the association between dietary diversity and child nutrition may be confounded by socioeconomic factors. We used data from 11 recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to examine the association between dietary diversity and height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) for children 6-23 mo old, while controlling for household wealth/welfare and several other potentially confounding factors. Bivariate associations between dietary diversity and HAZ were observed in 9 of the 11 countries. Dietary diversity remained significant as a main effect in 7 countries in multivariate models, and interacted significantly with other factors (e.g., child age, breast-feeding status, urban/rural location) in 3 of the 4 remaining countries. Thus, dietary diversity was significantly associated with HAZ, either as a main effect or in an interaction, in all but one of the countries analyzed. These findings suggest that there is an association between child dietary diversity and nutritional status that is independent of socioeconomic factors, and that dietary diversity may indeed reflect diet quality. Before dietary diversity can be recommended for widespread use as an indicator of diet quality, additional research is required to confirm and clarify relations between various dietary diversity indicators and nutrient intake, adequacy, and density, for children with differing dietary patterns.

1,036 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence from a multicountry analysis suggests that household-level DD diversity is strongly associated with household per capita income and energy availability, suggesting that DD could be a useful indicator of food security.
Abstract: Dietary diversity (DD) is universally recognized as a key component of healthy diets There is still, however, a lack of consensus on how to measure and operationalize DD This article reviews published literature on DD, with a focus on the conceptual and operational issues related to its measurement in developing countries Findings from studies of the association between DD and individual nutrient adequacy, child growth and/or household socioeconomic factors are summarized DD is usually measured using a simple count of foods or food groups over a given reference period, but a number of different groupings, classification systems and reference periods have been used This limits comparability and generalizability of findings The few studies that have validated DD against nutrient adequacy in developing countries confirm the well-documented positive association observed in developed countries A consistent positive association between dietary diversity and child growth is also found in a number of countries Evidence from a multicountry analysis suggests that household-level DD diversity is strongly associated with household per capita income and energy availability, suggesting that DD could be a useful indicator of food security The nutritional contribution of animal foods to nutrient adequacy is indisputable, but the independent role of animal foods relative to overall dietary quality for child growth and nutrition remains poorly understood DD is clearly a promising measurement tool, but additional research is required to improve and harmonize measurement approaches and indicators Validation studies are also needed to test the usefulness of DD indicators for various purposes and in different contexts

828 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The high mortality and disease burden resulting from these nutrition-related factors make a compelling case for the urgent implementation of interventions to reduce their occurrence or ameliorate their consequences.

5,634 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is estimated that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011.

5,574 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Food in the Anthropocene : the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems focuses on meat, fish, vegetables and fruit as sources of protein.

4,710 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that damage suffered in early life leads to permanent impairment, and might also affect future generations, as undernutrition is associated with lower human capital and its prevention will probably bring about important health, educational, and economic benefits.

3,341 citations