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Mark J. Kushner

Bio: Mark J. Kushner is an academic researcher from University of Michigan. The author has contributed to research in topics: Plasma & Plasma etching. The author has an hindex of 67, co-authored 499 publications receiving 17552 citations. Previous affiliations of Mark J. Kushner include Sandia National Laboratories & University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the state-of-the-art of this multidisciplinary area and identifying the key research challenges is provided in this paper, where the developments in diagnostics, modeling and further extensions of cross section and reaction rate databases are discussed.
Abstract: Plasma–liquid interactions represent a growing interdisciplinary area of research involving plasma science, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, photolysis, multiphase chemistry and aerosol science. This review provides an assessment of the state-of-the-art of this multidisciplinary area and identifies the key research challenges. The developments in diagnostics, modeling and further extensions of cross section and reaction rate databases that are necessary to address these challenges are discussed. The review focusses on non-equilibrium plasmas.

1,078 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The 2017 plasmas roadmap as mentioned in this paper is the first update of a planned series of periodic updates of the Plasma Roadmap, which was published by the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics in 2012.
Abstract: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published the first Plasma Roadmap in 2012 consisting of the individual perspectives of 16 leading experts in the various sub-fields of low temperature plasma science and technology. The 2017 Plasma Roadmap is the first update of a planned series of periodic updates of the Plasma Roadmap. The continuously growing interdisciplinary nature of the low temperature plasma field and its equally broad range of applications are making it increasingly difficult to identify major challenges that encompass all of the many sub-fields and applications. This intellectual diversity is ultimately a strength of the field. The current state of the art for the 19 sub-fields addressed in this roadmap demonstrates the enviable track record of the low temperature plasma field in the development of plasmas as an enabling technology for a vast range of technologies that underpin our modern society. At the same time, the many important scientific and technological challenges shared in this roadmap show that the path forward is not only scientifically rich but has the potential to make wide and far reaching contributions to many societal challenges.

677 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The 2012 plasma road map as mentioned in this paper provides guidance to the field by reviewing the major challenges of low-temperature plasma physics and their many sub-fields, as well as a review of the current state of the art in the field.
Abstract: Low-temperature plasma physics and technology are diverse and interdisciplinary fields. The plasma parameters can span many orders of magnitude and applications are found in quite different areas of daily life and industrial production. As a consequence, the trends in research, science and technology are difficult to follow and it is not easy to identify the major challenges of the field and their many sub-fields. Even for experts the road to the future is sometimes lost in the mist. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is addressing this need for clarity and thus providing guidance to the field by this special Review article, The 2012 Plasma Roadmap.

571 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a model for the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a•Si:H) in rf and dc discharges is presented.
Abstract: A model for the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a‐Si:H) in rf and dc discharges is presented. The model deals primarily with the plasma chemistry of discharges sustained in gas mixtures containing silane (SiH4). The plasma chemistry model uses as input the electron impact rate coefficients generated in a separate simulation for the electron kinetics and therefore makes no a priori assumptions as to the manner of power deposition. Radical densities and contributions to film growth are discussed as a function of gas mixture, electrode separation, and locale of power deposition, and comparisons are made to experiment. A compendium of reactions and rate constants for silane neutral and ion chemistry is also presented.

431 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report on a computational investigation of the gas phase and surface kinetics during humid-air corona treatment of polypropylene (PP) and the resulting modification of its surface properties while varying energy deposition, relative humidity (RH), web speed, and gas temperature.
Abstract: Atmospheric pressure plasmas are commonly used to improve the wetting and adhesion properties of polymers. In spite of their use, the mechanisms for achieving these properties are unclear. In this regard, we report on a computational investigation of the gas phase and surface kinetics during humid-air corona treatment of polypropylene (PP) and the resulting modification of its surface properties while varying energy deposition, relative humidity (RH), web speed, and gas temperature. Using results from a global plasma chemistry model validated against experiments, we found that increasing energy deposition increased the densities of alcohol, carbonyl, acid, and peroxy radicals on the PP surface. In doing so, significant amounts of gas phase O3 and NxOy are produced. Increasing the RH increased the production of peroxy and acid groups, while decreasing those of alcohol and carbonyl groups. Production of O3 decreased while that of HNO3 increased. Increasing the temperature decreased the concentrations of alcohol, carbonyl, and acid groups on PP while those of the peroxy radicals increased. For a given energy deposition, higher web speeds resulted in decreased concentrations of alcohols, peroxy radicals, carbonyl, and acid groups on PP.

425 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the history, discharge physics, and plasma chemistry of dielectric-barrier discharges and their applications and discuss the applications of these discharges.
Abstract: Dielectric-barrier discharges (silent discharges) are used on a large industrial scale. They combine the advantages of non-equilibrium plasma properties with the ease of atmospheric-pressure operation. A prominent feature is the simple scalability from small laboratory reactors to large industrial installations with megawatt input powers. Efficient and cost-effective all-solid-state power supplies are available. The preferred frequency range lies between 1 kHz and 10 MHz, the preferred pressure range between 10 kPa and 500 kPa. Industrial applications include ozone generation, pollution control, surface treatment, high power CO2 lasers, ultraviolet excimer lamps, excimer based mercury-free fluorescent lamps, and flat large-area plasma displays. Depending on the application and the operating conditions the discharge can have pronounced filamentary structure or fairly diffuse appearance. History, discharge physics, and plasma chemistry of dielectric-barrier discharges and their applications are discussed in detail.

2,730 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This introductory review on plasma health care is intended to provide the interested reader with a summary of the current status of this emerging field, its scope, and its broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from plasma physics, chemistry and technology, to microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, medicine and hygiene.
Abstract: This introductory review on plasma health care is intended to provide the interested reader with a summary of the current status of this emerging field, its scope, and its broad interdisciplinary approach, ranging from plasma physics, chemistry and technology, to microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, medicine and hygiene. Apart from the basic plasma processes and the restrictions and requirements set by international health standards, the review focuses on plasma interaction with prokaryotic cells (bacteria), eukaryotic cells (mammalian cells), cell membranes, DNA etc. In so doing, some of the unfamiliar terminology—an unavoidable by-product of interdisciplinary research—is covered and explained. Plasma health care may provide a fast and efficient new path for effective hospital (and other public buildings) hygiene— helping to prevent and contain diseases that are continuously gaining ground as resistance of pathogens to antibiotics grows. The delivery of medically active 'substances' at the molecular or ionic level is another exciting topic of research through effects on cell walls (permeabilization), cell excitation (paracrine action) and the introduction of reactive species into cell cytoplasm. Electric fields, charging of surfaces, current flows etc can also affect tissue in a controlled way. The field is young and hopes are high. It is fitting to cover the beginnings in New Journal of Physics, since it is the physics (and non- equilibrium chemistry) of room temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas that have made this development of plasma health care possible.

1,441 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The various aspects of impedance methodology are discussed, and alternative approaches described, with the objective of providing an informed basis for choosing among these methodological alternatives.
Abstract: Impedance cardiography was introduced over 20 years ago as a noninvasive and unobtrusive technique for measuring systolic time intervals and cardiac output. Although our understanding of the physiological events reflected in the impedance cardiogram has become more refined, the technique's theoretical basis remains somewhat controversial and acceptance of its validity has relied heavily upon empirical validation. Largely as a consequence of this status, there have been inadequate grounds on which to develop sound methodological standardization. Currently, the methodological approaches that have been most frequently adopted may be viewed as representing the standard. The various aspects of impedance methodology are discussed, and alternative approaches described, with the objective of providing an informed basis for choosing among these methodological alternatives. It is recommended that studies utilizing impedance cardiography should be reported with clear and detailed methodological description. This should help clarify the extent to which methodological differences may underlie any discrepant research observations, as well as facilitate the emergence of improved methodological standards.

1,108 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the current status of research on atmospheric pressure non-thermal discharges in and in contact with liquids can be found in this article, where the emphasis is on their generation mechanisms and their physical characteristics.
Abstract: During the last two decades atmospheric (or high) pressure non-thermal plasmas in and in contact with liquids have received a lot of attention in view of their considerable environmental and medical applications. The simultaneous generation of intense UV radiation, shock waves and active radicals makes these discharges particularly suitable for decontamination, sterilization and purification purposes. This paper reviews the current status of research on atmospheric pressure non-thermal discharges in and in contact with liquids. The emphasis is on their generation mechanisms and their physical characteristics.

1,081 citations