Martin A. Bates
Other affiliations: Fundamental Research on Matter Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, University of Patras, University of Bologna ...read more
Bio: Martin A. Bates is an academic researcher from University of York. The author has contributed to research in topics: Liquid crystal & Phase (matter). The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 50 publications receiving 1919 citations. Previous affiliations of Martin A. Bates include Fundamental Research on Matter Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics & University of Patras.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, Monte Carlo simulations are used to study two-dimensional hard rod fluids consisting of spherocylinders confined to lie in a plane, and the phase behavior is mapped out as a function of the aspect ratio (L/D) of the particles.
Abstract: Monte Carlo simulations are used to study two-dimensional hard rod fluids consisting of spherocylinders confined to lie in a plane. The phase behavior is mapped out as a function of the aspect ratio (L/D) of the particles, from the hard disc limit at one extreme (L/D=0) to the thin hard needle limit at the other (L/D=∞). For long rods, a 2D nematic phase is observed at high density in which the orientational correlation functions decay algebraically, indicating that the phase does not possess true long range orientational order. The simulation data indicate that the transition from this phase to the low density isotropic phase is continuous, via a Kosterlitz–Thouless disclination unbinding type mechanism, rather than first order. For short rods the nematic phase disappears so that, on expansion, the solid phase undergoes a first order transition directly to an isotropic phase. Although the latter phase is globally isotropic, we find evidence for strong local positional and orientational correlations between the particles. Where possible, the simulation results are compared and contrasted to experimental, simulation and theoretical data for other two-dimensional liquid crystalline systems.
TL;DR: In this article, a detailed computer simulation study of Gay-Berne particles interacting via a potential parametrized to reflect the anisotropic forces based on a fit to a realistic mesogenic molecule is presented.
Abstract: The Gay–Berne potential is proving to be a valuable model with which to investigate the behavior of liquid crystals using computer simulation techniques. The potential contains four independent parameters which control the anisotropy in the attractive and repulsive interactions. The choice of these parameters is not straightforward and it would seem that those employed in some simulations are not strictly appropriate for mesogenic rodlike molecules. Here we report a detailed computer simulation study of Gay–Berne particles interacting via a potential parametrized to reflect the anisotropic forces based on a fit to a realistic mesogenic molecule. The behavior of the phases and the transitions between them have been investigated for a system of 2000 particles using isothermal–isobaric Monte Carlo simulations. At low pressures, this Gay–Berne mesogen exhibits isotropic, smectic A and smectic B phases but, as the pressure is increased, so a nematic phase is added to the sequence. The nature of the phase transitions and the phase diagram are compared where possible with those of real mesogens. The structures of the four phases have been investigated in detail for a larger system of 16 000 particles using canonical molecular dynamics simulations at state points taken from the phase diagram determined from the Monte Carlo simulations. A wide range of singlet and pair distribution functions were evaluated together with orientational correlation coefficients and, for the smectic phases, a bond orientation correlation function. The results for these properties were used to identify the phases, to consider their structure at a quantitative level and, where possible, to make contact with experimental studies and the predictions of theories of liquid crystals. It would appear that with this parametrization, the Gay–Berne potential provides a powerful tool with which to understand the behavior of real liquid crystals and to test the predictions of theory.
TL;DR: In this paper, the phase behavior of a model for polydisperse rod-like colloids was investigated using isobaric semigrand Monte Carlo simulations, and the authors found that if the polydispersity is small (standard deviation s < 0.08), the phase behaviour is essentially unchanged from that observed in monodisperse systems; thus nematic, smectic, and crystal phases are exhibited.
Abstract: Using isobaric semigrand Monte Carlo simulations, we have investigated the phase behavior of a model for polydisperse rodlike colloids. The system consists of hard spherocylinders in the limit of infinite aspect ratio, with polydispersity in the length of the particles. If the polydispersity is small (standard deviation s<0.08), the phase behavior is essentially unchanged from that observed in monodisperse systems; thus nematic, smectic, and crystal phases are exhibited. For an intermediate range of polydispersities (0.08
TL;DR: In this paper, the phase behavior of model colloidal systems composed of infinitely thin hard platelets, with polydispersity in the size of the particles, was studied using semi-grand Gibbs ensemble simulations.
Abstract: We study the phase behavior of model colloidal systems composed of infinitely thin hard platelets, with polydispersity in the size of the particles. Semi-grand Gibbs ensemble simulations are used to study the coexisting nematic and isotropic phases for a range of systems with varying polydispersity. Particle size segregation is observed in the two coexisting phases, with the larger particles tending to be found in the nematic phase. This fractionation becomes more evident with increasing polydispersity. We examine the relationship between the size of a particle and its orientation in the nematic phase and find that the larger particles tend to be more orientationally ordered than the smaller ones. The coexistence densities determined from the simulations are compared to those obtained from recent experiments on colloidal platelets.
TL;DR: In this paper, a series of constant pressure Monte Carlo simulations of model discotic molecules are presented. But, the simulations are restricted to the Gay-Berne potential, which is an anisotropic version of a shifted Lennard-Jones potential, to model the interactions between the disks.
Abstract: The majority of molecules which form liquid crystals are elongated in shape. However, disk shaped molecules have also been shown to exhibit liquid crystalline phases. In this paper we report a series of constant pressure Monte Carlo simulations of model discotic molecules. We have used the Gay–Berne potential, which is in essence an anisotropic version of a shifted Lennard‐Jones potential, to model the interactions between the disks. Initially we studied a system of 512 molecules over a range of pressures to determine the mesophases formed and to construct the phase diagram. The system was found to exhibit isotropic, nematic, and columnar phases. We have also studied a larger system of 2000 molecules at a single pressure to calculate more accurately the distribution functions used to describe the translational and orientational order within the various phases.
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These
TL;DR: Contractile myocytes provide a test of the hypothesis that cells sense their mechanical as well as molecular microenvironment, altering expression, organization, and/or morphology accordingly, and have major implications for in vivo introduction of stem cells into diseased or damaged striated muscle of altered mechanical composition.
Abstract: Contractile myocytes provide a test of the hypothesis that cells sense their mechanical as well as molecular microenvironment, altering expression, organization, and/or morphology accordingly. Here, myoblasts were cultured on collagen strips attached to glass or polymer gels of varied elasticity. Subsequent fusion into myotubes occurs independent of substrate flexibility. However, myosin/actin striations emerge later only on gels with stiffness typical of normal muscle (passive Young's modulus, E approximately 12 kPa). On glass and much softer or stiffer gels, including gels emulating stiff dystrophic muscle, cells do not striate. In addition, myotubes grown on top of a compliant bottom layer of glass-attached myotubes (but not softer fibroblasts) will striate, whereas the bottom cells will only assemble stress fibers and vinculin-rich adhesions. Unlike sarcomere formation, adhesion strength increases monotonically versus substrate stiffness with strongest adhesion on glass. These findings have major implications for in vivo introduction of stem cells into diseased or damaged striated muscle of altered mechanical composition.
TL;DR: This paper shows how colloidal spheres can be induced to self-assemble into a complex predetermined colloidal crystal—in this case a colloidal kagome lattice—through decoration of their surfaces with a simple pattern of hydrophobic domains, and encodes the target supracolloidal architecture.
Abstract: A challenging goal in materials chemistry and physics is spontaneously to form intended superstructures from designed building blocks. In fields such as crystal engineering and the design of porous materials, this typically involves building blocks of organic molecules, sometimes operating together with metallic ions or clusters. The translation of such ideas to nanoparticles and colloidal-sized building blocks would potentially open doors to new materials and new properties, but the pathways to achieve this goal are still undetermined. Here we show how colloidal spheres can be induced to self-assemble into a complex predetermined colloidal crystal-in this case a colloidal kagome lattice-through decoration of their surfaces with a simple pattern of hydrophobic domains. The building blocks are simple micrometre-sized spheres with interactions (electrostatic repulsion in the middle, hydrophobic attraction at the poles, which we call 'triblock Janus') that are also simple, but the self-assembly of the spheres into an open kagome structure contrasts with previously known close-packed periodic arrangements of spheres. This open network is of interest for several theoretical reasons. With a view to possible enhanced functionality, the resulting lattice structure possesses two families of pores, one that is hydrophobic on the rims of the pores and another that is hydrophilic. This strategy of 'convergent' self-assembly from easily fabricated colloidal building blocks encodes the target supracolloidal architecture, not in localized attractive spots but instead in large redundantly attractive regions, and can be extended to form other supracolloidal networks.
TL;DR: It is reported that soluble, chemically oxidized graphene or graphene oxide sheets can form chiral liquid crystals in a twist-grain-boundary phase-like model with simultaneous lamellar ordering and long-range helical frustrations.
Abstract: Chirality and liquid crystals are both widely expressed in nature and biology Helical assembly of mesophasic molecules and colloids may produce intriguing chiral liquid crystals To date, chiral liquid crystals of 2D colloids have not been explored As a typical 2D colloid, graphene is now receiving unprecedented attention However, making macroscopic graphene fibres is hindered by the poor dispersibility of graphene and by the lack of an assembly method Here we report that soluble, chemically oxidized graphene or graphene oxide sheets can form chiral liquid crystals in a twist-grain-boundary phase-like model with simultaneous lamellar ordering and long-range helical frustrations Aqueous graphene oxide liquid crystals were continuously spun into metres of macroscopic graphene oxide fibres; subsequent chemical reduction gave the first macroscopic neat graphene fibres with high conductivity and good mechanical performance The flexible, strong graphene fibres were knitted into designed patterns and into directionally conductive textiles