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Martin Daly

Bio: Martin Daly is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Reciprocal altruism & Norm (social). The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 53 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Hallowell's approach permits the building of a thrid but complementary explanation based on selection for the ability to internalize others and to attend to their representations even in the absence of their prototypes.
Abstract: A. I. Hallowell tried to turn anthropology towards a sociobiology while the former field was still strongly opposed to any consideration of the evolution of human behavior. His work is of more than historical interest, however, because he stressed the evolution of the human ability to internalize social norms and evaluate self and others in terms of them. This ability is the basis of our species's trait of cultural rather than biological adaptation to diverse ecological settings. Sociobiologists have dealt with the evolution of norm acquisition under the rubric of "altruism." Insofar as adherence to norms either directly increases the fitnes of kin (kin selection) or indirectly increases the fitness of all participants (reciprocal altruism), both Hamilton and Trivers have offered explanations for adherence to social norms. Hallowell's approach permits the building of a thrid but complementary explanation based on selection for the ability to internalize others and to attend to their representations even i...

53 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 1923-Nature
TL;DR: The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus as mentioned in this paper is a remarkable and strikingly original work which is published in German and English in parallel pages and it is difficult to appreciate the reason for this, seeing that the author is evidently familiar with our language and has himself carefully revised the proofs of the translation.
Abstract: 13 EADERS of Mr. Bertrand Russell's philosophical £v works know that one of his pupils before the outbreak of the war, an Austrian, Mr. Ludwig Wittgenstein, caused him to change his views in some important particulars. Curiosity can now be satisfied. The “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus “which Mr. Ogden has included in his new library of philosophy is a remarkable and strikingly original work. It is published in German and English in parallel pages. It is difficult to appreciate the reason for this, seeing that the author is evidently familiar with our language and has himself carefully revised the proofs of the translation. Also we should have liked to have the Tractatus without Mr. Russell's Introduction, not, we hasten to add, on account of any fault or shortcoming in that introduction, which is highly appreciative and in part a defence of himself, in part explanatory of the author, but for the reason that good wine needs no bush and that Mr. Russell's bush has the unfortunate effect of dulling the palate instead of whetting the appetite. In his penultimate sentence Mr. Russell says; “To have constructed a theory of logic which is not at any point obviously wrong is to have achieved a work of extraordinary difficulty and importance.” We agree, but how uninspiring when compared with Mr. Wittgenstein's own statement of aim: “What can be said at all can be said clearly, and whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent.” Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. By Ludwig Wittgenstein. (International Library of Psychology, Philosophy and Scientific Method.) Pp. 189. (London: Kegan Paul and Co., Ltd.; New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., Inc., 1922.) 10s. 6d. net.

1,130 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that self-benefit appeals are more effective when consumers' responses are private in nature; in contrast, other-benefit messages are publicly accountable for their responses, which is related to a desire to manage impressions by behaving in a manner consistent with normative expectations.
Abstract: Despite the growing need, nonprofit organization marketers have not yet fully delineated the most effective ways to position charitable appeals. Across five experiments, the authors test the prediction that other-benefit (self-benefit) appeals generate more favorable donation support than self-benefit (other-benefit) appeals in situations that heighten (versus minimize) public self-image concerns. Public accountability, a manipulation of public self-awareness, and individual differences in public self-consciousness all moderate the effect of appeal type on donor support. In particular, self-benefit appeals are more effective when consumers' responses are private in nature; in contrast, other-benefit appeals are more effective when consumers are publicly accountable for their responses. This effect is moderated by norm salience and is related to a desire to manage impressions by behaving in a manner consistent with normative expectations. The results have important managerial implications, suggest...

434 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: This chapter provides an overview of evolutionary theory and archaeology and reasons to believe that scientific evolution can be expanded to provide an explanatory framework for cultural phenomena.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter provides an overview of evolutionary theory and archaeology. If evolution is taken to mean what it does in the sciences, it has yet to be systematically applied in either sociocultural anthropology or archaeology. There are reasons to believe that scientific evolution can be expanded to provide an explanatory framework for cultural phenomena. The applicability of evolutionary theory to archaeology is not established by a demonstration of its explanatory power for sociocultural phenomena. If it is to be used in archaeology, it must be rewritten in terms that have empirical representation in the archaeological record. Archaeological evolutionary theory will have to be constructed by deducing the consequences of evolutionary theory as employed in biology and as applicable to ethnographic data for artifacts, and their frequencies and distributions. Even so, a few aspects of the archaeological record, those not directly subject to selection, will require explanation in strictly cultural terms. It is clear that archaeologists want to obtain the kinds of explanations that only scientific evolution is able to provide.

305 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This book explains how genetic variation arises from: Recombination during sexual reproduction – genes are put into new combinations during Meiosis, producing new phenotypes Mutation – mistakes are made in the copying of DNA Lateral gene transfer – genes is passed between prokaryotic organisms
Abstract: 4. How does natural variation affect evolution? What are the sources of genetic variation within populations? Explain how each increases genetic variation. Without natural variation, all organisms would be identical. Therefore, no organism would have an advantage over another. If a change occurred in the ecosystem the entire species would be wiped out. Genetic variation arises from: Recombination during sexual reproduction – genes are put into new combinations during Meiosis, producing new phenotypes Mutation – mistakes are made in the copying of DNA Lateral gene transfer – genes are passed between prokaryotic organisms

187 citations