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Martin Golubitsky

Other affiliations: University of Houston, Queens College, Queen's University more
Bio: Martin Golubitsky is an academic researcher from Ohio State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Hopf bifurcation & Bifurcation theory. The author has an hindex of 52, co-authored 167 publications receiving 13906 citations. Previous affiliations of Martin Golubitsky include University of Houston & Queens College.

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01 Jan 1985
TL;DR: Singularities and groups in bifurcation theory as mentioned in this paper have been used to solve the problem of finding a group of singularities in a set of problems with multiple solutions.
Abstract: This book has been written in a frankly partisian spirit-we believe that singularity theory offers an extremely useful approach to bifurcation prob- lems and we hope to convert the reader to this view In this preface we will discuss what we feel are the strengths of the singularity theory approach This discussion then Ieads naturally into a discussion of the contents of the book and the prerequisites for reading it Let us emphasize that our principal contribution in this area has been to apply pre-existing techniques from singularity theory, especially unfolding theory and classification theory, to bifurcation problems Many ofthe ideas in this part of singularity theory were originally proposed by Rene Thom; the subject was then developed rigorously by John Matherand extended by V I Arnold In applying this material to bifurcation problems, we were greatly encouraged by how weil the mathematical ideas of singularity theory meshed with the questions addressed by bifurcation theory Concerning our title, Singularities and Groups in Bifurcation Theory, it should be mentioned that the present text is the first volume in a two-volume sequence In this volume our emphasis is on singularity theory, with group theory playing a subordinate role In Volume II the emphasis will be more balanced Having made these remarks, Iet us set the context for the discussion of the strengths of the singularity theory approach to bifurcation As we use the term, bifurcation theory is the study of equations with multiple solutions

3,214 citations

01 Jan 1973
TL;DR: In this article, the Whitney C? topology is used to classify singularities on 2-manifolds. But the Thom-Boardman invariants are not included in this classification.
Abstract: I: Preliminaries on Manifolds.- 1. Manifolds.- 2. Differentiable Mappings and Submanifolds.- 3. Tangent Spaces.- 4. Partitions of Unity.- 5. Vector Bundles.- 6. Integration of Vector Fields.- II: Transversality.- 1. Sard's Theorem.- 2. Jet Bundles.- 3. The Whitney C? Topology.- 4. Transversality.- 5. The Whitney Embedding Theorem.- 6. Morse Theory.- 7. The Tubular Neighborhood Theorem.- III: Stable Mappings.- 1. Stable and Infinitesimally Stable Mappings.- 2. Examples.- 3. Immersions with Normal Crossings.- 4. Submersions with Folds.- IV: The Malgrange Preparation Theorem.- 1. The Weierstrass Preparation Theorem.- 2. The Malgrange Preparation Theorem.- 3. The Generalized Malgrange Preparation Theorem.- V: Various Equivalent Notions of Stability.- 1. Another Formulation of Infinitesimal Stability.- 2. Stability Under Deformations.- 3. A Characterization of Trivial Deformations.- 4. Infinitesimal Stability => Stability.- 5. Local Transverse Stability.- 6. Transverse Stability.- 7. Summary.- VI: Classification of Singularities, Part I: The Thom-Boardman Invariants.- 1. The Sr Classification.- 2. The Whitney Theory for Generic Mappings between 2-Manifolds.- 3. The Intrinsic Derivative.- 4. The Sr,s Singularities.- 5. The Thom-Boardman Stratification.- 6. Stable Maps Are Not Dense.- VII: Classification of Singularities, Part II: The Local Ring of a Singularity.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Finite Mappings.- 3. Contact Classes and Morin Singularities.- 4. Canonical Forms for Morin Singularities.- 5. Umbilics.- 6. Stable Mappings in Low Dimensions.- A. Lie Groups.- Symbol Index.

1,824 citations

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TL;DR: This paper studies the various planforms that emerge when the model V1 dynamics become unstable under the presumed action of hallucinogens or flickering lights, and shows that the planforms correspond to the axial subgroups of E(2), under the shift-twist action.
Abstract: This paper is concerned with a striking visual experience: that of seeing geometric visual hallucinations. Hallucinatory images were classified by Kluver into four groups called form constants comprising (i) gratings, lattices, fretworks, filigrees, honeycombs and chequer-boards, (ii) cobwebs, (iii) tunnels, funnels, alleys, cones and vessels, and (iv) spirals. This paper describes a mathematical investigation of their origin based on the assumption that the patterns of connection between retina and striate cortex (henceforth referred to as V1)-the retinocortical map-and of neuronal circuits in V1, both local and lateral, determine their geometry. In the first part of the paper we show that form constants, when viewed in V1 coordinates, essentially correspond to combinations of plane waves, the wavelengths of which are integral multiples of the width of a human Hubel-Wiesel hypercolumn, ca. 1.33-2 mm. We next introduce a mathematical description of the large-scale dynamics of V1 in terms of the continuum limit of a lattice of interconnected hypercolumns, each of which itself comprises a number of interconnected iso-orientation columns. We then show that the patterns of interconnection in V1 exhibit a very interesting symmetry, i.e. they are invariant under the action of the planar Euclidean group E(2)-the group of rigid motions in the plane-rotations, reflections and translations. What is novel is that the lateral connectivity of V1 is such that a new group action is needed to represent its properties: by virtue of its anisotropy it is invariant with respect to certain shifts and twists of the plane. It is this shift-twist invariance that generates new representations of E(2). Assuming that the strength of lateral connections is weak compared with that of local connections, we next calculate the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the cortical dynamics, using Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory. The result is that in the absence of lateral connections, the eigenfunctions are degenerate, comprising both even and odd combinations of sinusoids in straight phi, the cortical label for orientation preference, and plane waves in r, the cortical position coordinate. 'Switching-on' the lateral interactions breaks the degeneracy and either even or else odd eigenfunctions are selected. These results can be shown to follow directly from the Euclidean symmetry we have imposed. In the second part of the paper we study the nature of various even and odd combinations of eigenfunctions or planforms, the symmetries of which are such that they remain invariant under the particular action of E(2) we have imposed. These symmetries correspond to certain subgroups of E(2), the so-called axial subgroups. Axial subgroups are important in that the equivariant branching lemma indicates that when a symmetrical dynamical system becomes unstable, new solutions emerge which have symmetries corresponding to the axial subgroups of the underlying symmetry group. This is precisely the case studied in this paper. Thus we study the various planforms that emerge when our model V1 dynamics become unstable under the presumed action of hallucinogens or flickering lights. We show that the planforms correspond to the axial subgroups of E(2), under the shift-twist action. We then compute what such planforms would look like in the visual field, given an extension of the retinocortical map to include its action on local edges and contours. What is most interesting is that, given our interpretation of the correspondence between V1 planforms and perceived patterns, the set of planforms generates representatives of all the form constants. It is also noteworthy that the planforms derived from our continuum model naturally divide V1 into what are called linear regions, in which the pattern has a near constant orientation, reminiscent of the iso-orientation patches constructed via optical imaging. The boundaries of such regions form fractures whose points of intersection correspond to the well-known 'pinwheels'. To complete the study we then investigate the stability of the planforms, using methods of nonlinear stability analysis, including Liapunov-Schmidt reduction and Poincare-Lindstedt perturbation theory. We find a close correspondence between stable planforms and form constants. The results are sensitive to the detailed specification of the lateral connectivity and suggest an interesting possibility, that the cortical mechanisms by which geometric visual hallucinations are generated, if sited mainly in V1, are closely related to those involved in the processing of edges and contours.

401 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A recent generalization of the group-theoretic notion of symmetry replaces global symmetries by bijections between certain inputs of the directed edges of the network, the ''input sets'' as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: A formal theory of symmetries of networks of coupled dynamical systems, stated in terms of the group of permutations of the nodes that preserve the network topology, has existed for some time. Global network symmetries impose strong constraints on the corresponding dynamical systems, which affect equilibria, periodic states, heteroclinic cycles, and even chaotic states. In particular, the symmetries of the network can lead to synchrony, phase relations, resonances, and synchronous or cycling chaos. Symmetry is a rather restrictive assumption, and a general theory of networks should be more flexible. A recent generalization of the group-theoretic notion of symmetry replaces global symmetries by bijections between certain subsets of the directed edges of the network, the ‘input sets’. Now the symmetry group becomes a groupoid, which is an algebraic structure that resembles a group, except that the product of two elements may not be defined. The groupoid formalism makes it possible to extend group-theoretic methods to more general networks, and in particular it leads to a complete classification of ‘robust’ patterns of synchrony in terms of the combinatorial structure of the network. Many phenomena that would be nongeneric in an arbitrary dynamical system can become generic when constrained by a particular network topology. A network of dynamical systems is not just a dynamical system with a high-dimensional phase space. It is also equipped with a canonical set of observables—the states of the individual nodes of the network. Moreover, the form of the underlying ODE is constrained by the network topology—which variables occur in which component equations, and how those equations relate to each other. The result is a rich and new range of phenomena, only a few of which are yet properly understood.

390 citations

01 Jan 2002

357 citations

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08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

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TL;DR: A comprehensive review of spatiotemporal pattern formation in systems driven away from equilibrium is presented in this article, with emphasis on comparisons between theory and quantitative experiments, and a classification of patterns in terms of the characteristic wave vector q 0 and frequency ω 0 of the instability.
Abstract: A comprehensive review of spatiotemporal pattern formation in systems driven away from equilibrium is presented, with emphasis on comparisons between theory and quantitative experiments. Examples include patterns in hydrodynamic systems such as thermal convection in pure fluids and binary mixtures, Taylor-Couette flow, parametric-wave instabilities, as well as patterns in solidification fronts, nonlinear optics, oscillatory chemical reactions and excitable biological media. The theoretical starting point is usually a set of deterministic equations of motion, typically in the form of nonlinear partial differential equations. These are sometimes supplemented by stochastic terms representing thermal or instrumental noise, but for macroscopic systems and carefully designed experiments the stochastic forces are often negligible. An aim of theory is to describe solutions of the deterministic equations that are likely to be reached starting from typical initial conditions and to persist at long times. A unified description is developed, based on the linear instabilities of a homogeneous state, which leads naturally to a classification of patterns in terms of the characteristic wave vector q0 and frequency ω0 of the instability. Type Is systems (ω0=0, q0≠0) are stationary in time and periodic in space; type IIIo systems (ω0≠0, q0=0) are periodic in time and uniform in space; and type Io systems (ω0≠0, q0≠0) are periodic in both space and time. Near a continuous (or supercritical) instability, the dynamics may be accurately described via "amplitude equations," whose form is universal for each type of instability. The specifics of each system enter only through the nonuniversal coefficients. Far from the instability threshold a different universal description known as the "phase equation" may be derived, but it is restricted to slow distortions of an ideal pattern. For many systems appropriate starting equations are either not known or too complicated to analyze conveniently. It is thus useful to introduce phenomenological order-parameter models, which lead to the correct amplitude equations near threshold, and which may be solved analytically or numerically in the nonlinear regime away from the instability. The above theoretical methods are useful in analyzing "real pattern effects" such as the influence of external boundaries, or the formation and dynamics of defects in ideal structures. An important element in nonequilibrium systems is the appearance of deterministic chaos. A greal deal is known about systems with a small number of degrees of freedom displaying "temporal chaos," where the structure of the phase space can be analyzed in detail. For spatially extended systems with many degrees of freedom, on the other hand, one is dealing with spatiotemporal chaos and appropriate methods of analysis need to be developed. In addition to the general features of nonequilibrium pattern formation discussed above, detailed reviews of theoretical and experimental work on many specific systems are presented. These include Rayleigh-Benard convection in a pure fluid, convection in binary-fluid mixtures, electrohydrodynamic convection in nematic liquid crystals, Taylor-Couette flow between rotating cylinders, parametric surface waves, patterns in certain open flow systems, oscillatory chemical reactions, static and dynamic patterns in biological media, crystallization fronts, and patterns in nonlinear optics. A concluding section summarizes what has and has not been accomplished, and attempts to assess the prospects for the future.

6,145 citations

01 Oct 2006
TL;DR: This book explains the relationship of electrophysiology, nonlinear dynamics, and the computational properties of neurons, with each concept presented in terms of both neuroscience and mathematics and illustrated using geometrical intuition, providing a link between the two disciplines.
Abstract: This book explains the relationship of electrophysiology, nonlinear dynamics, and the computational properties of neurons, with each concept presented in terms of both neuroscience and mathematics and illustrated using geometrical intuition In order to model neuronal behavior or to interpret the results of modeling studies, neuroscientists must call upon methods of nonlinear dynamics This book offers an introduction to nonlinear dynamical systems theory for researchers and graduate students in neuroscience It also provides an overview of neuroscience for mathematicians who want to learn the basic facts of electrophysiology "Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience" presents a systematic study of the relationship of electrophysiology, nonlinear dynamics, and computational properties of neurons It emphasizes that information processing in the brain depends not only on the electrophysiological properties of neurons but also on their dynamical properties The book introduces dynamical systems starting with one- and two-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley-type models and continuing to a description of bursting systems Each chapter proceeds from the simple to the complex, and provides sample problems at the end The book explains all necessary mathematical concepts using geometrical intuition; it includes many figures and few equations, making it especially suitable for non-mathematicians Each concept is presented in terms of both neuroscience and mathematics, providing a link between the two disciplines Nonlinear dynamical systems theory is at the core of computational neuroscience research, but it is not a standard part of the graduate neuroscience curriculum - or taught by math or physics department in a way that is suitable for students of biology This book offers neuroscience students and researchers a comprehensive account of concepts and methods increasingly used in computational neuroscience

3,683 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the rules of the ring, the ring population, and the need to get off the ring in order to measure the movement of a cyclic clock.
Abstract: 1980 Preface * 1999 Preface * 1999 Acknowledgements * Introduction * 1 Circular Logic * 2 Phase Singularities (Screwy Results of Circular Logic) * 3 The Rules of the Ring * 4 Ring Populations * 5 Getting Off the Ring * 6 Attracting Cycles and Isochrons * 7 Measuring the Trajectories of a Circadian Clock * 8 Populations of Attractor Cycle Oscillators * 9 Excitable Kinetics and Excitable Media * 10 The Varieties of Phaseless Experience: In Which the Geometrical Orderliness of Rhythmic Organization Breaks Down in Diverse Ways * 11 The Firefly Machine 12 Energy Metabolism in Cells * 13 The Malonic Acid Reagent ('Sodium Geometrate') * 14 Electrical Rhythmicity and Excitability in Cell Membranes * 15 The Aggregation of Slime Mold Amoebae * 16 Numerical Organizing Centers * 17 Electrical Singular Filaments in the Heart Wall * 18 Pattern Formation in the Fungi * 19 Circadian Rhythms in General * 20 The Circadian Clocks of Insect Eclosion * 21 The Flower of Kalanchoe * 22 The Cell Mitotic Cycle * 23 The Female Cycle * References * Index of Names * Index of Subjects

3,424 citations

01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a review of rigor properties of low-dimensional models and their applications in the field of fluid mechanics. But they do not consider the effects of random perturbation on models.
Abstract: Preface Part I. Turbulence: 1. Introduction 2. Coherent structures 3. Proper orthogonal decomposition 4. Galerkin projection Part II. Dynamical Systems: 5. Qualitative theory 6. Symmetry 7. One-dimensional 'turbulence' 8. Randomly perturbed systems Part III. 9. Low-dimensional Models: 10. Behaviour of the models Part IV. Other Applications and Related Work: 11. Some other fluid problems 12. Review: prospects for rigor Bibliography.

2,920 citations