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Martin M. Malawer

Bio: Martin M. Malawer is an academic researcher from Georgetown University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Soft tissue & Shoulder girdle. The author has an hindex of 34, co-authored 68 publications receiving 3257 citations. Previous affiliations of Martin M. Malawer include George Washington University & MedStar Washington Hospital Center.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Large-segment prostheses were a good reconstructive option for the treatment of high-grade bone sarcomas in patients and the functional results were good or excellent after this form of treatment at most of the anatomical sites at which they were used.
Abstract: We evaluated the long-term clinical results and the survival of the prostheses in eighty-two patients who had had a limb-sparing procedure by means of the implantation of a large-segment prosthesis. All patients had had a high-grade bone sarcoma of the distal, middle, or proximal part of the femur; the proximal part of the humerus; the proximal part of the tibia; or the pelvis. The duration of follow-up ranged from two to twelve years (median, three and one-half years). Function was evaluated with the revised 30-point classification system of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society. The survival of the prostheses was analyzed with regard to several variables with use of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. Sixty-eight patients were alive at the latest follow-up evaluation. The survival rate of the prostheses was 83 per cent at five years and 67 per cent at ten years. Twelve prostheses were revised, and eleven revisions were successful. The rate of revision was highest (six of thirteen) in the patients who had had a tumor of the proximal part of the tibia. In contrast, only three (10 per cent) of the thirty-one patients who had had a tumor of the distal part of the femur and three (10 per cent) of the twenty-nine who had had a tumor of the proximal part of the humerus had a revision. Eleven patients (13 per cent) had an infection, which necessitated an amputation in six. Five patients (6 per cent) had a local recurrence, and nine patients (11 per cent), including the six already mentioned, ultimately needed an amputation. Patients who had had a tumor of the proximal part of the humerus had the highest functional scores, while those who had had a tumor of the proximal part of the tibia had the lowest scores. Large-segment prostheses were a good reconstructive option for the treatment of high-grade bone sarcomas in our patients. The rates of long-term survival of the prostheses were acceptable and the functional results were good or excellent after this form of treatment at most of the anatomical sites at which they were used.

340 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cryosurgery has the advantages of joint preservation, excellent functional outcome, and low recurrence rate when compared with other joint preservation procedures, and it is recommended as an adjuvant to curettage for most giant cell tumors of bone.
Abstract: Between 1983 and 1993, 102 patients with giant cell tumor of bone were treated at three institutions. Sixteen patients (15.9%) presented with already having had local recurrence. All patients were treated with thorough curettage of the tumor, burr drilling of the tumor inner walls, and cryotherapy by direct pour technique using liquid nitrogen. The average followup was 6.5 years (range, 4-15 years). The rate of local recurrence in the 86 patients treated primarily with cryosurgery was 2.3% (two patients), and the overall recurrence rate was 7.9% (eight patients). Six of these patients were cured by cryosurgery and two underwent resection. Overall, 100 of 102 patients were cured with cryosurgery. Complications associated with cryosurgery included six (5.9%) pathologic fractures, three (2.9%) cases of partial skin necrosis, and two (1.9%) significant degenerative changes. Overall function was good to excellent in 94 patients (92.2%), moderate in seven patients (6.9%), and poor in one patient (0.9%). Cryosurgery has the advantages of joint preservation, excellent functional outcome, and low recurrence rate when compared with other joint preservation procedures. For these reasons, it is recommended as an adjuvant to curettage for most giant cell tumors of bone.

285 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Osteosarcoma is a mesenchymally derived, high-grade bone sarcoma that is the third most common malignancy in children and adolescents and presents with pain, swelling, localized enlargement of the extremity and, occasionally, pathologic fracture.
Abstract: The treatment of osteosarcoma requires a multidisciplinary approach involving the family physician, orthopedic oncologist, medical oncologist, radiologist and pathologist. Osteosarcoma is a mesenchymally derived, high-grade bone sarcoma. It is the third most common malignancy in children and adolescents. The most frequent sites of origin are the distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal humerus. Patients typically present with pain, swelling, localized enlargement of the extremity and, occasionally, pathologic fracture. Most patients present with localized disease. Radiographs commonly demonstrate a mixed sclerotic and lytic lesion arising in the metaphyseal region of the involved bone. Computed tomography and bone scanning are recommended to detect pulmonary and bone metastases, respectively. Before 1970, osteosarcomas were treated with amputation. Survival was poor: 80 percent of patients died from metastatic disease. With the development of induction and adjuvant chemotherapy protocols, advances in surgical techniques and improvements in radiologic staging studies, 90 to 95 percent of patients with osteosarcoma can now be treated with limb-sparing resection and reconstruction. Long-term survival and cure rates have increased to between 60 and 80 percent in patients with localized disease.

252 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Dec 2000-Cancer
TL;DR: The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of percutaneous core needle biopsy in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal sarcomas.
Abstract: BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of percutaneous core needle biopsy in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal sarcomas. METHODS One hundred eighty-five biopsy procedures were performed on 161 musculoskeletal tissue masses suspected of being a sarcoma in 155 patients who underwent subsequent tumor resection. A percutaneous core needle biopsy was performed on all masses either in the clinic or under radiologic guidance. If an adequate diagnosis could not be made on the basis of this biopsy specimen, an open incisional biopsy was performed. RESULTS One hundred seventy-three core needle biopsy procedures were performed: 90 without radiologic guidance, 55 computed tomography guided, and 28 fluoroscopically guided. Twelve open incisional biopsies were performed. Eighty-three sarcomas, 67 benign mesenchymal tumors, and 11 metastatic epithelial tumors were identified. Analysis of the data reveals that only 7.4% of the masses required open biopsy. In 88.2% of the masses, a single percutaneous biopsy procedure was adequate, and no additional biopsy was necessary. There was a 1.1% rate of complications; none caused a change in the patient's treatment plan. There was a 1.1% rate of major diagnostic errors, none of which ultimately impacted on the patient's outcome. There were no unnecessary amputations. Percutaneous needle biopsy showed a positive predictive value of 100%, a negative predictive value of 82%, a sensitivity of 81.8%, and a specificity of 100%. The accuracy of a single-needle biopsy procedure to identify benign versus malignant lesions, exact grade, and exact pathology was 92.4%, 88.6%, and 72.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The percutaneous needle biopsy was found to be extremely effective and safe for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal masses. This method allowed 88% of patients with suspected sarcomas to undergo a single-needle biopsy procedure before the initiation of definitive treatment. Patients undergoing percutaneous needle biopsy had lower rates of major diagnostic errors and complications than previously described for open biopsy. Open biopsy offered limited additional information when preceded by a needle biopsy, given that these tumors were difficult to identify even after final resection. Cancer 2000;89:2677–86. © 2000 American Cancer Society.

200 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Distant femur endoprosthetic reconstruction is a safe and reliable technique of functional limb sparing that provides good function and local tumor control in most patients.
Abstract: The distal femur is a common site for primary and metastatic bone tumors and therefore, it is a frequent site in which limb-sparing surgery is done. Between 1980 and 1998, the authors treated 110 consecutive patients who had distal femur resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction. There were 61 males and 49 females who ranged in age from 10 to 80 years. Diagnoses included 99 malignant tumors of bone, nine benign-aggressive lesions, and two nonneoplastic conditions that had caused massive bone loss and articular surface destruction. Reconstruction was done with 73 modular prostheses, 27 custom-made prostheses, and 10 expandable prostheses. Twenty-six gastrocnemius flaps were used for soft tissue reconstruction. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Function was estimated to be good or excellent in 94 patients (85.4%), moderate in nine patients (8.2%), and poor in seven patients (6.4%). Complications included six deep wound infections (5.4%), six aseptic loosenings (5.4%), six prosthetic polyethylene component failures (5.4%), and local recurrence in five of 93 patients (5.4%) who had a primary bone sarcoma. The limb salvage rate was 96%. Distal femur endoprosthetic reconstruction is a safe and reliable technique of functional limb sparing that provides good function and local tumor control in most patients.

179 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Progress in the molecular characteristics of these tumors should in the near future translate into molecularly based therapies that can be incorporated into standard treatment strategies.
Abstract: Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare tumors that arise predominantly from the embryonic mesoderm. They present most commonly as an asymptomatic mass originating in an extremity but can occur anywhere in the body, particularly the trunk, retroperitoneum, or the head and neck. Pretreatment radiologic imaging is critical for defining the local extent of a tumor, staging the disease, guiding biopsies, and aiding in diagnosis. Core-needle biopsy is the preferred biopsy technique for diagnosing soft tissue sarcomas. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for soft tissue sarcomas is based on histologic grade, the tumor size and depth, and the presence of distant or nodal metastases. Despite improvements in local control rates with wide local resections and radiation therapy, metastasis and death remain a significant problem in 50% of patients who present with high-risk soft tissue sarcomas. The most common site of metastasis is the lungs, and metastasis generally occurs within two to three years after the completion of therapy. Progress in the molecular characteristics of these tumors should in the near future translate into molecularly based therapies that can be incorporated into standard treatment strategies.

781 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current understanding and treatment of soft-tissue sarcoma is reviewed, with an emphasis on recent advances.
Abstract: Soft-tissue sarcomas have traditionally been managed by wide excisional surgery and radiotherapy, with chemotherapy reserved for advanced disease. However, advances in multidisciplinary care have improved the evaluation and treatment of patients with this uncommon tumor. Limb-conserving surgery, superior radiotherapy delivery, and novel adjuvant agents for specific tumors are now available. This article reviews the current understanding and treatment of soft-tissue sarcoma, with an emphasis on recent advances.

770 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors review the state of the art management for patients with osteosarcoma in North America and Europe including the use of limb-salvage procedures and reconstruction as well as discuss the etiologic and biologic factors associated with tumor development.
Abstract: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Survival for these patients was poor with the use of surgery and/or radiotherapy. The introduction of multi-agent chemotherapy dramatically improved the outcome for these patients and the majority of modern series report 3-year disease-free survival of 60%-70%. This paper describes current strategies for treating patients with osteosarcoma as well as review of the clinical features, radiologic and diagnostic work-up, and pathology. The authors review the state of the art management for patients with osteosarcoma in North America and Europe including the use of limb-salvage procedures and reconstruction as well as discuss the etiologic and biologic factors associated with tumor development. Therapy-related sequelae and future directions in the biology and therapy for these patients are also discussed.

631 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state of the art of treatment for bone osteosarcoma in the pediatric age is reviewed, with the most effective drugs still the same as those employed over the last 20 years as front line neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy: Doxorubicin, Cisplatin, Methotrexate, Ifosfamide.

554 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of the present study suggest that percutaneous ablation with radiofrequency is essentially equivalent to operative excision for the treatment of an osteoid osteoma in an extremity.
Abstract: Osteoid osteoma, a benign bone tumor, has traditionally been treated with operative excision. A recently developed method for percutaneous ablation of the tumor has been proposed as an alternative to operative treatment. The relative outcomes of the two approaches to treatment have not previously been compared, to our knowledge. The rates of recurrence and of persistent symptoms were compared in a consecutive series of eighty-seven patients who were managed with operative excision and thirty-eight patients who were managed with percutaneous ablation with radiofrequency. Patients who had a spinal lesion were excluded. The minimum duration of follow-up was two years. There was a recurrence, defined as the need for subsequent intervention, after operative treatment in six (9 per cent) of sixty-eight patients who had been managed for a primary lesion and in two of nineteen who had been managed for a recurrent lesion. The average length of the hospital stay was 4.7 days for the patients who had a primary lesion and 5.1 days for those who had a recurrent lesion. There was a recurrence after percutaneous treatment in four (12 per cent) of thirty-three patients who had been managed for a primary lesion and in none of five who had been managed for a recurrent lesion. The average length of the hospital stay was 0.2 day for these thirty-eight patients. With the numbers available, we could detect no significant difference between the two treatments with regard to the rate of recurrence. The rate of persistent symptoms (that is, symptoms that did not necessitate additional treatment) was greater than the rate of recurrence. According to responses to a questionnaire, eight (30 per cent) of twenty-seven patients had persistent symptoms after operative treatment and six (23 per cent) of twenty-six patients had persistent symptoms after percutaneous treatment with radiofrequency. Two patients had complications after operative excision, necessitating a total of five additional operations. There were no complications associated with the percutaneous method. The results of the present study suggest that percutaneous ablation with radiofrequency is essentially equivalent to operative excision for the treatment of an osteoid osteoma in an extremity. The percutaneous method is preferred for the treatment of extraspinal osteoid osteoma because it generally does not necessitate hospitalization, it has not been associated with complications, and it is associated with a rapid convalescence.

540 citations